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Zhang Z.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory for Fishery Eco Environment | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | Wang X.H.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 15 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2017

According to the concept of Microbial Loop, bacteria and virus play important role in organic matter recycling and energy flowing in marine ecosystem, and meanwhile influence many biogeochemical and ecological processes. Marine bacterial and viral ecology has become hotspot in current studies. The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal seas in Northwest Pacific, and has already been proved to be oligotrophic. The SCS has attracted great attention due to its economic and strategic importance in recent years. Although the abundance and diversity of bacterioplankton in coastal waters and northern upwelling regions of SCS are well documented, little is known about bacterioplankton and virioplankton distribution in the central and northern area, especially the area near 18°N in SCS, and further investigations should be carried on to study the ecological functions of microbes in this region. In order to study the ecological distribution and function of bacteria and virus in this area, a cruise was conducted during Spring 2014 and water samples were collected from 27 stations. Water column at each station was divided into five layers, which were 5, 25, 75, 150 and 200 m layers respectively. Water samples were collected by Niskin bottles, fixed with glutaraldehyde and stored at liquid nitrogen immediately. Bacterioplankton and virioplankton abundances at different water layers and stations were measured by flow cytometry method. Horizontal and vertical distribution and its correlation with environmental variables, such as temperature, depth, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a and inorganic nutrients were also analyzed. The results showed that the bacterioplankton and virioplankton abundances in the upper 200 m of the water column were 1.28×104-9.96×105 cells/mL and 4.69×105-5.39×107 cells/mL, respectively. Their abundances were similar to the results in other oligotrophic oceans and lower than that of the coastal areas. With the increase in water depth, the abundances of both bacterioplankton and virioplankton decreased gradually in the vertical direction and in correlation with the euphotic layer, but no significant distribution pattern was detected in the horizontal direction. The variation in bacterioplankton and virioplankton abundance was significantly correlated with water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen, but negatively correlated with water depth, salinity, active phosphorus, silicate, nitrate, and total nitrogen (P<0.01). We conclude that bacterioplankton and virioplankton abundances were regulated by multiple environmental factors. Virus-to-bacteria ratio (VBR) reflects the relationship between bacteria and virus. The average VBR in this region was 32.23. The maximum value was 264.63 and it was observed at the 75 m layer of S7 station. The minimum value was 4.80 and it was detected at the 25 m layer of S11 station. A VBR value lower than 100 was detected in 95.6% of the stations. No significant correlation was found between VBR and environmental variables (P>0.05), however, a significant negative correlation was observed between bacterioplankton and VBR (P<0.01). A strong correlation between bacterioplankton and virioplankton was detected (P<0.01), indicating that bacterioplankton is probably the main host of virioplankton, and the virioplankton probably mainly existed in the form of bacteriophage. Relationships between organic carbon and bacterioplankton need to be further studied in order to illuminate growth and decline mechanism of microbes in SCS. © 2017, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


Gu Y.-G.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Gu Y.-G.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology and Environment | Gu Y.-G.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | Ke C.-L.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2016

We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑ PAHs were 29.38–815.46 ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48 ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2–3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range–median quotient. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Yu Z.-L.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Yu Z.-L.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology and Environment | Yu Z.-L.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | Lin Q.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2016

Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Eastern Guangdong coast, China. Total PAH concentrations in oysters ranged from 231 to 1178 ng/g with a mean concentration of 622 ng/g dry weight. Compared with other bays and estuaries, PAH levels in oysters were moderate. Spatial distribution of PAHs was site specific, with relatively high PAH concentrations observed in Zhelin Bay and Kaozhouyang Bay. Based on the Spearman test analysis, only PAH concentration in oysters from Jiazi Harbor showed a significant increasing trend (P < 0.05). Three-ring PAHs were the most abundant, accounting for 54.2%–88.4% of total PAHs. Diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs were derived mainly from petroleum origin. BaP and ∑4PAH concentrations were well within the European Union limits (5 ng/g and 30 ng/g wet weight, respectively). The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for PAHs were < 10− 5, indicating that the adverse health risks associated with oyster consumption in this area were minimal. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Huang X.-H.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | Huang X.-H.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Guo G.-X.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Tao Q.-Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Aquacultural Engineering | Year: 2016

The dynamic behavior of a fish cage collar in waves was investigated using a numerical model based on the finite element method. The floating collar and mooring system were divided into a series of line segments modeled by straight massless model segments with a node at each end. To verify the validity of the numerical model, research data from other authors were cited and compared with the simulated results, the comparison of results showed a good agreement. The numerical model was then applied to a dynamic simulation of a floating cage collar in waves to analyze its elastic deformation and mooring line tension. The simulated results indicated that the greatest deformation of the collar taken place in the position of the mooring line connection point when incident waves were in the same direction. An increase in the length of mooring line would help to decrease the mooring line tension of the collar. Furthermore, the effects of collar dimension, including collar circumference, pipe diameter in cross-section, and pipe thickness, on the dynamic behavior of the floating collar were discussed. The results of this study provided a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the fish cage collar. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Xie B.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Xie B.,Shanghai Ocean University | Xie B.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | Fu M.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2016

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ancient cytokine that engages in innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the MIF gene homologue (PmMIF) was cloned from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmMIF was 838 bp and contained 78 bp 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and 397 bp 3′ UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 363 bp which coded 120 amino acids (aa). Multiple alignment analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared 98% identities with MIF from closely related species of Litopenaeus vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmMIF was highly expression observed in hepatotpancreas and gills. After Vibrio harveyi challenge, PmMIF mRNA level in hepatopancreas and gills were sharply up-regulated at 6 h post-injection, and reached the maximum at 12 h. PmMIF expression level in the hepatopancreas and gills were up-regulated markedly under low (2.3%) and high (4.3%) salinity exposure, respectively. PmMIF expression level in gills increased significantly at 12 h and reached peak values (2.5- fold, 6.4-fold and 1.8-fold compared with the control) at 12 h, 48 h and 12 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. In the hepatopancreas, the expression of PmMIF reached maximum levels (8.5- fold, 6.2-fold and 2.1-fold compared with the control) at 24 h, 6 h and 48 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. All the results indicate that PmMIF plays an important role in responding in the innate immune system of shrimps. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Dai W.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Dai W.,Shanghai Ocean University | Qiu L.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Qiu L.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2016

The tumor suppressor p53 is a sequence-specific transcription factor, whose target genes can regulate genomic stability, the cellular response to DNA damage and cell-cycle progression. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of p53 gene from Penaeus monodon (Pmp53) was cloned by the technology of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA of Pmp53 was 2239 bp, encoding a protein of 450 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 50.62 kDa. The temporal expression of Pmp53 in different tissues (ovary, heart, intestine, brain, muscles, stomach and gills) and different developmental stages of ovary was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The lowest expression level of Pmp53 was observed in the stomach, while the highest expression level was detected in the brain. During the ovary development stages, the expression level of Pmp53 reached the peak at stage III. RNA interference (RNAi) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of Pmp53 and PmCDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2, CDK2). Knocked down of Pmp53 by dsRNA-p53 was sequence-specific and successful. Expression levels of Pmp53 and PmCDK2 in ovary of P. monodon were significantly increased at 12–96 h post 5-HT injection. These results indicate that Pmp53 may be involved in the regulation of ovarian development of P. monodon. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Wang C.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Wang C.,Shanghai Ocean University | Wang C.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | Zhao C.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2016

Toll-like receptor 5M belongs to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) family, which plays a crucial role in innate immunity due to its important role in the recognition of bacteria invasion and in the activation of immune related pathways downstream. In the present study, we firstly cloned the full-length cDNAs of TLR 5M (LjTLR 5M) from Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas). The full-length cDNAs of LjTLR 5M include an open reading frame (ORF) of 2676 bp encoding a polypeptide of 891 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that LiTLR 5M contains LRRs (extracellular leucine rich repeats), transmembrane and TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain. Transcriptional expression analysis indicated that LiTLR 5M mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in wide array of tissues and the peak level was observed in the head-kidney. The expression patterns of LjTLR 5M after Vibro harveyi and Streptococus agalactiae infection were detected by qRT-PCR, and the results showed that LjTLR 5M was significant up-regulated in spleen, liver and head-kidney. Additionally, the expression patterns of LjTLR 5M in infected spleen and head-kidney were further validated by in situ hybridization (ISH). In summary, these findings indicate that LjTLR 5M is significant induced after different bacterial infection and is involved in immune response. Furthermore, this study will provide foundational information for other TLRs research of L. japonicas against different bacterial pathogens invasion. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Shi J.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Shi J.,Shanghai Ocean University | Fu M.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Fu M.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | And 8 more authors.
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2016

Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a class of highly conserved proteins produced in virtually all living organisms from bacteria to humans. Hsp60 and Hsp10, the most important mitochondrial chaperones, participate in environmental stress responses. In this study, the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of Hsp60 (PmHsp60) and Hsp10 (PmHsp10) were cloned from Penaeus monodon. Sequence analysis showed that PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 encoded polypeptides of 578 and 102 amino acids, respectively. The expression profiles of PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 were detected in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimps under pH challenge, osmotic stress, and heavy metal exposure, and results suggested that PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 were involved in the responses to these stimuli. ATPase and chaperone activity assay indicated that PmHsp60 could slow down protein denaturation and that Hsp60/Hsp10 may be combined to produce a chaperone complex with effective chaperone and ATPase activities. Overall, this study provides useful information to help further understand the functional mechanisms of the environmental stress responses of Hsp60 and Hsp10 in shrimp. © 2015, Cell Stress Society International.


Zhao C.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Zhao C.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | Fu M.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Fu M.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | And 6 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2016

Lateolabrax japonicus is one of the main marine aquatic fish species, and is popularly cultured in East Asia due to its highly commercial value. In recent years, because of large-scale and intensive farming and seawater pollution, fish diseases keep breaking out. However, systematic study on L. japonicus immunogenetics is limited due to the deficiency of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds. In this study, the widely analysis at the transcriptome level for L. japonicus that infected with Vibrio anguillarum was performed. In total, 334,388,688 high quality reads were obtained in six libraries (HK-VA, HK-PBS, LI-VA, LI-PBS, SP-VA and SP-PBS) and de novo assembled into 101,860 Unigenes with an average unigene length of 879 bp. Based on sequence similarity 30,142 unigenes (29.59%) were annotated in the public databases. Comparative analysis revealed, 1,202, 3034 and 3519 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in three comparisons (HK-PBS VS HK-VA, LI-PBS VS LI-VA and SP-PBS VS SP-VA). Enrichment and pathway analysis of the DEGs was also carried out to excavate the candidate genes related to immunity. In conclusion, this study identifies and evaluates dozen of potential immune related pathways and candidate genes, which are indispensable for padding genomic resources of L. japonicus, and would lay the foundation for further studying and illuminating the mechanism of host-pathogen interactions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Zhao C.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Zhao C.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | Fu M.J.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Fu M.J.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016

Reduced reproductive performance of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has caused economic losses and hampered the fishing industry. Detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism by which the cell cycle is regulated in this organism is needed to understand the development and maturation of ovaries and oocytes, with a view to improving reproductive capacity. Cell cycle progression is mainly determined by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cyclin complexes, the cyclin E/CDK2 complex playing a key role in G1/S transition. However, knowledge of the interplay between cyclin E and CDK2 in invertebrates remains limited. In this study, full-length P. monodon cyclin E (Pmcyclin E) and CDK2 (PmCDK2) sequences were cloned. The open reading frame of Pmcyclin E was 1263 bp in length and encoded a 47.9-kDa protein, while that of PmCDK2 was 921 bp, encoding a protein of 34.9 kDa. Recombinant cyclin E and CDK2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-chelating affinity chromatography. In addition, a pull-down assay was performed to identify any interaction between Pmcyclin E and PmCDK2. This research provides a basis for the study of the functional mechanisms of the cyclin E/CDK2 complex in shrimp, further enriching our knowledge of invertebrate cell cycle regulation. © 2016 The Authors.

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