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Ma Z.-B.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Ma Z.-B.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | Cheng H.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Cheng H.,University of Minnesota | And 8 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012

A high-resolution and absolute-dated stalagmite record from Kulishu Cave, Beijing characterizes Asian Monsoon (AM) history in northern China between ca 14 and 10.5 ka BP (thousand yrs before present, present = 1950), including the entire Younger Dryas (YD) event. Using 230Th dates and counting of annual-layers, the shift into the YD began at 12,850 ± 40 yr BP and took ~340 yrs and the shift out of the YD began at 11,560 ± 40 yr BP and took <38 yrs (best estimate ~20 yrs), broadly similar to previously reported AM records from central and southeastern China. The more gradual nature of the start of the YD event as observed in the AM records appears to contrast with the more abrupt beginning observed in the Greenland ice records. The total amplitude of the AM YD event is also smaller than the amplitude of the AM Heinrich Stadial 1 event. In addition, the general rising trend of the AM during the Bølling-Allerød period contrasts with the general cooling trend in Greenland temperature during that time. The influence of rising insolation on the AM may explain this observation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Lu Y.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu Y.,Key laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | Zhao P.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Xu R.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Xie L.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Scientia Geologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Based on previous geothermal tracing researches by boron isotopes, and by utilizing the state-of-art MC-ICP-MS analytical technique for measuring boron isotope ratios, the mixing processes between deep geothermal water and surface cold water of the Yangbajing (YBJ) geothermal field in Tibet were determined. The 8 B values of geothermal water range from -10.5%c to -9.1‰, indicating the non-marine sources. And further we propose that B is derived from host altered granite according to regional geological features, and the host altered granite should have similar boron isotope ratios to the deep geothermal water. Shallow geothermal water samples suggest that there is fractionation of B isotopes in the YBJ shallow reservoir. Accordingly, some complicated factors will be introduced into the two end-member mixing model in the YBJ since there is only little difference of boron isotopes between two end-members. Therefore, we discussed in details that exploitation, water-rock interaction, separation between vapor and liquid phase and scaling are some possible factors for yielding B isotopic fractionation.


Wu Q.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Wu Q.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | Liu M.,Tsinghua University | Huang W.,HIGH-TECH | And 2 more authors.
Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, APPEEC | Year: 2012

Across Tibetan Plateau, there is bountiful solar energy and salt lake resource. However, the lack of the conventional energy for the mineral exploitation of the salt lake is a touchy issue. The solar energy utilization and the salt lake exploitation can be combined to bridge the gap between the energy demand and the economic development. Solar pond technique is a special way for the exploitation of the salt lake mineral resources by using the solar energy. In this paper, it was illustrated that Tibetan Plateau is an ideal place for the construction and operation of solar pond. Also, this paper described the significant superiority of solar pond crystallization compared with the natural evaporation crystallization in the mineral resource exploitation of the salt lake in Tibet. It was pointed out that the crystallization rate of the high added-value saline minerals, especially the lithium carbonate, can be speeded up in the solar pond, thereby increasing the production efficiency. In addition, the grade of lithium carbonate in the mixed salt can also be improved significantly, the salt product obtained from the solar pond can be used for the final fine processing directly. The research and development of the solar pond technology, which has very important significance in the utilization of the solar energy resource and the exploitation of the salt lake resource in Tibetan Plateau, should be paid more attention in the future. © 2012 IEEE.


Zhang Y.-S.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zhang Y.-S.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | Niu S.-W.,Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources | Tian S.-G.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Geological Bulletin of China | Year: 2012

Previous researches on the Upper Permian Linxi Formation in Linxi County and Taohaiyingzi Formation in Jalaid Banner show that the main fossils are freshwater bivalves and plant fossils. Except for Taohaiyingzi Formation, conchostracan fossils had never been discovered in this area. In this study, the conchostracan fossils were discovered firstly in the upper part of the Linxi Formation in Guandi section of eastern Linxi County, Inner Mongolia, which are preliminarily identified as Huanghestheria linxiensis Niu (sp. nov)., Cyclotunguzites cf. gazimuri Novojilov, and Sphaerorthothemos cf. cellulatus (Lutkevich) respectively. Therefore, the conchostracan fossils discovery in Linxi Formation provides the reliable fossil evidence for the determination of the age of Linxi Formation as well as for stratigraphic correlation and palaeogeographic reconstruction. This achievement has important stratigraphic and palaeogeographicy tectonic significance.


Luo X.-F.,China University of Mining and Technology | Luo X.-F.,Zhongchuan International Mining Holdings Ltd. | Zheng M.-P.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zheng M.-P.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | And 4 more authors.
Northwestern Geology | Year: 2014

The paper is written based on the basis of the author's' substantive experience on potash exploration and exploitation overseas, personal visits at operating potash mines in Germany, face-to-face communication with German potash institutes and abundant historic data. It is with an overview for on geologic setting, current status of exploitation and mining technologies of German potash. Meanwhile, it this paper aims at providing a reference for domestic potash exploration and as well as its integrated exploitation through the research in geological setting, history of formation and mining technologies of Germany martial-face potash. German potash was formed in Zechstein Basin in Permian period, which was situated relatively steadily in shallow continental shelf area of continental block. Eight cycles have been found in Zechstain Basin (Z1 - Z8) and each cycle was deposited in similar sequence. The sequence of deposit from bottom to top is: clastic rock→carbonate→anhydrite→halite→sylvite→roof of anhydrite. The discovery of super large-scale Permian potash basin displays that most potash resource in the world, which is normally contained in sub-basin, comes from martial-face. Meanwhile, the change of some specific elements, such as bromine and rubidium, could be indication of potash deposit. The method should be used in the potash exploration in China. Potash could be mined by either conventional mining or solution mining. Conventional mining was more popular in past many years. However, solution mining has been improving and it has more advantages compared with conventional mining.


Zheng M.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zheng M.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

The Chinese salt lake mega-region is controlled by an arid and semi-arid climate, and modern salt lakes are mainly distributed within areas with mean annual precipitation <500 mm. According to their geomorphological features, structural conditions, and material composition, salt lakes in China can be broadly divided into four regions. The degrees of exploitation and utilization of these salt lakes differ because these four regions have experienced different climatic changes and structural activities and have had their own characteristics of salt lake evolution since the beginning of the Quaternary. The salt lakes in these regions have different scales, economic value, and technical conditions for traffic. Among others, Jarantai (Jartai) Salt Lake and Yuncheng Salt Lake are better in terms of comprehensive utilization and environmental protection, and the potash salt lakes represented by Qarhan are most important in terms of exploitation. At present, there exist many environmental problems in the salt lake regions of China, especially in remote, small and medium-sized basins, where abusive or wasteful mining, low recovery, and mining of a single saline mineral have caused impoverishment and large quantities of byproducts. Furthermore, climatic environmental factors can also cause significant changes of salt lake environment. Since 1987, against the background of global warming, the climate in the northwest salt lake region has turned warm and wet, and lakes have exhibited a tendency for expansion and rise, whereas in the east of the region, the climate has remained in a warm dry stage, lake levels have dropped, and salt lakes have become desertified. With the implementation of the strategy of building an environmentally friendly society in China, increasing attention is being paid to eco-environmental protection. It is suggested that experience and advanced techniques in terms of comprehensive utilization, overall development, and environmental protection of salt lakes at home and abroad be further developed to strengthen observation and monitoring of environmental changes of salt lakes and build an environmentally friendly, great salt lake industry. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Nie Z.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Nie Z.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | Bu L.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Bu L.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | And 3 more authors.
Solar Energy | Year: 2011

A salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP) is a simple and effective way of capturing and storing solar energy. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has very good solar energy resources and very rich salt lake brine resources. It lacks energy for its mineral processes and is therefore an ideal location for the development and operation of solar ponds. In China, solar ponds have been widely applied for aquaculture, in the production of Glauber's salt and in the production of lithium carbonate from salt lake. As part of an experimental study, a SGSP using the natural brine of Zabuye salt lake in the Tibet plateau has been constructed. The pond has an area of 2500m2 and is 1.9m deep. The solar pond started operation in spring when the ambient temperature was very low and has operated steadily for 105days, with the LCZ temperature varying between 20 and 40°C. During the experimental study, the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the pond reached a maximum temperature of 39.1°C. The results show that solar ponds can be operated successfully at the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and can be applied to the production of minerals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang H.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Wang H.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | Zheng M.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zheng M.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | And 2 more authors.
Acta Geologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Microbial mats, mainly dominated by filamentous algae Calothrix and Oscillatoria, are well developed in Tibetan hot springs. A great number of fossil microorganisms, which existed as algae lamination in thermal depositional cesium-bearing geyserite in this area, are identified as Calothrix and Oscillatoria through microexamination and culture experiments. These microbial mats show the ability to accumulate cesium from spring water to the extent of cesium concentration of 0.46-1.03% cell dry weight, 900 times higher than that in water, and capture large numbers of cesium-bearing opal grain. Silicon dioxide colloid in spring water replaces and fills with the organism and deposits on it to form algae laminated geyserite after dehydration and congelation. Cesium in the microbial mats and opal grain is then reserved in the geyserite. Eventually, cesium-bearing algae laminated geyserite is formed. Study on cesium distribution in geyserite also shows that cesium content in algae lamination, especially in heavily compacted algae lamination, is higher than in the opal layer. For geyserite with no algae lamination or other organism structure, which is generally formed in spring water with low silicon content, cesium accumulation and cesium-bearing opal grain assembled by the microbial mats are also indispensable. After the microbial mats accumulating cesium from spring water, silicon dioxide colloid poorly replaces and fills with the organism to form opal grain-bearing tremellose microbial mats. The shape and structure of the organisms are then destroyed, resulting in cesium-bearing geyserite with no algae lamination structure after dehydration and congelation. It is then concluded that microbial mats in the spring area contribute to the enrichment of cesium in the formation of cesium-bearing geyserite, and a biological genesis of the geyserite, besides of the physical and chemical genesis, is likely.


Song P.-S.,CAS Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes | Song P.-S.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | Li W.,CAS Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes | Sun B.,CAS Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes | And 6 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Salt lakes are usually refered to the most concentrated natural waters with salt content more than 50 g·L-1. Salt lakes contain abundant mineral resources such as potassium, lithium, boron, and sodium, magnesium etc., thus are considered as store house of mineral salts. Dead Sea in the Middle East, Great Salt Lake, USA, are the most famous in the world for comprehensive utilization of their mineral resources. Development and exploitation of salt lakes are becoming a hot trend again in the last decade. It can be mainly contributed to the "lithium fever". Rising prices of potassium fertilizers also stimulate the old enterprises of exploitating salt lakes to increase their output. Salt lakes on the central Andes Mountains are hold more than 70% of world lithium reserves in store, and a great quantity of potassium, boron, magneium etc. In addition to high concentration of the above elements in brines, extreme dryness of the climate in the area is the most favourable to uses of solar pond for evaporation and concentration of brines. Trends and progress in comprehensive utilization of salt lake resources are reviewed in the present paper. Main progress in this field of China is also involved.


Nie Z.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Nie Z.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | Bu L.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Bu L.,Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment | And 4 more authors.
Acta Geologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Salt lakes are well developed in China with all hydro-chemical types. Zabuye carbonate-type Salt lake, located in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau, is just at the late period of evolution and is a coexistence deposit of solid and liquid. Therefore, it is of great economic value. Isothermal evaporation experiment was conducted on the brines from the Zabuye Salt Lake at 15°C and 25°C in order to understand the enrichment behavior of each element and crystallization paths of salt minerals. Based on the comparison study on concentration rule and crystallization paths of the worldwide carbonate-type and sulfate-type lithium salt lakes, it is concluded that the brine of Zabuye Salt Lake has a unique crystallization path during evaporation. The experiments also suggests that low evaporation temperature is appropriate for lithium concentration while high temperature for boron enrichment. Zabuyelite (Li 2CO3) and potash can precipitate together during evaporation. The potassium mineral is sylvite in low temperature and glaserite in high temperature. Meanwhile high temperature is in favor of the formation of highgrade lithium carbonate.

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