Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety

Shanghai, China

Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety

Shanghai, China
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Liang J.,Fudan University | Liang J.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | Zhu H.,Fudan University | Zhu H.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | And 7 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2012

Although benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental endocrine disrupter, it has been unclear whether neonatal exposure to BaP affects the testosterone level and, if so, whether this influence persists into adulthood. In this present study, we gave neonatal rats (through oral gavages) doses of 0, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg day of BaP in corn oil from postnatal day 1 (PND 1) to PND 7. The rats were sacrificed at PND 8, PND 35, and PND 90. BaP exposure was confirmed through the induction of liver and testis CYP1A1 mRNA expression at PND 8 (i.e., immediately after exposure). The testicular daily sperm production and the sperm counts of the epididymis cauda at PND 90 were significantly lower than those of the control. The serum testosterone levels decreased markedly at PND 8, PND 35, and PND 90 after neonatal BaP exposure relative to those of the control. The mRNA expressions of StAR also decreased relative to those of the control at PND 8, PND 35, and PND 90, although the mRNA expressions of P450c17 and 17β-HSD were suppressed significantly only at PND 8. To further elucidate the mechanism of the persistent decrease in the mRNA expression of StAR, we determined the histone acetylation level in the StAR promoter. The extent of acetylation of H3K14 in the determined region decreased after neonatal exposure to BaP; this phenomenon persisted to the adult stage. Our results indicate that neonatal exposure to BaP damages testosterone production and sperm counts in the long term, possibly as a result of epigenetic regulation in the StAR promoter region. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Zhang C.,Fudan University | Zhang C.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | Liang Y.,Fudan University | Liang Y.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | And 7 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Exposure to cadmium (Cd) can affect both DNA methylation and renal function, but there are few examples of the association between epigenetic markers and Cd-induced kidney damage. It has been suggested that hypermethylation of the genes RASAL1 and KLOTHO is associated with renal fibrogenesis. To investigate whether hypermethylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO in peripheral blood DNA can be associated with Cd exposure and/or Cd-induced renal dysfunction, the degrees of methylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO in peripheral blood DNA from 81 residents in Cd-polluted and non-polluted areas were measured using bisulfate-PCR-pyrosequencing. Changes in blood cadmium (BCd), urinary cadmium (UCd), and kidney parameters were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated. The levels of BCd and UCd correlated positively with the levels of DNA methylation in RASAL1 and in KLOTHO. The more heavily exposed residents (BCd, 4.23-13.22. μg/L; UCd, 8.65-32.90. μg/g creatinine) exhibited obvious renal dysfunction. Notably, when Cd concentration in blood and urine was adjusted, the increased methylation level in RASAL1 was inversely correlated with eGFR ( P<. 0.01) but the relationship between hypermethylation of KLOTHO and eGFR was not statistically significant. The methylation of RASAL1 increased along with the increased abnormal prevalence of eGFR. Our findings suggest that Cd exposure can induce the hypermethylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO. Hypermethylation of RASAL1 may be an indicator of the progress for chronic kidney disease. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Zhang Z.,Fudan University | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | Zhu R.,National Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. Methodology/Principal Findings: A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. Conclusion: It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the current low endemic levels of infection. The future control strategy for schistosomiasis should instead focus on a snail-based integrated control strategy to maintain the program achievements and sustainably reduce the burden of schistosomiasis in China. © 2012 Zhang et al.


Hu Y.,Fudan University | Hu Y.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | Xiong C.,Fudan University | Zhang Z.,Fudan University | And 7 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2014

The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Zhang J.,Fudan University | Zhang J.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | Liang J.,Fudan University | Liang J.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2013

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely used in industry; it is nonbiodegradable and persistent in the human body and in the environment. Although reports have indicated that young people might have higher PFOS levels in serum or blood than do older people, its adverse effects on neonatal testicular cells had not been investigated previously. PCB 153 is one of the most prevalent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in biological tissues, but the direct adverse effect of PCB 153 on neonatal testis remains unclear. In this study, we exposed a neonatal Sertoli cell/gonocyte coculture system to PFOS and PCB 153 individually at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μM for 24 h. Exposure to either compound reduced the cell viability and induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dose-dependent manners, with PCB 153 having a greater effect than PFOS. Whereas PCB 153 induced apoptosis significantly from 10 μM, PFOS induced no obvious change. Morphologically, both PCB 153 and PFOS induced changes in the vimentin and actin filaments in the Sertoli cells, as investigated using confocal argon ion laser scanning microscopy; here, PFOS exhibited a more dramatic effect than did PCB 153. Furthermore, doses of 50 μM for PFOS and 10 μM for PCB 153 were the key concentrations that produced significant differences between the control and exposure groups. We suggest that both PCB 153 and PFOS directly affect neonatal gonocyte and Sertoli cells; the production of ROS and the change in the cytoskeleton in Sertoli cells might be causes. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Shi H.-J.,Fudan University | Shi H.-J.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | Jiang X.-X.,Fudan University | Jiang X.-X.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare | Year: 2013

We evaluated the effectiveness of a mobile phone text-messaging based smoking cessation intervention package among Chinese adolescent smokers. Students aged 16-19 years were recruited from six vocational high schools located in Shanghai. We assigned the six schools to an intervention group or a control group by cluster randomization. The 92 participants in the intervention group were given tailored information via mobile phone text-messaging for 12 weeks. The 87 participants in the control group were provided with a self-help pamphlet about smoking cessation instead. After the intervention, attitudes towards the disadvantages of smoking were significantly improved, and the level of nicotine dependence and cigarette dependence significantly decreased in the intervention group. The intervention group had a relatively higher self-reported 7-day abstinence compared to the control group and 30-day abstinence, but the differences were not significant. However, the intervention group had a significantly higher rate of smoking reduction (66% vs. 35%) and moving forward in quitting stages (52% vs. 18%) compared to the control group. The interactive and tailored assistance provided by the mobile phone text-messaging was effective in smoking behaviour intervention in Chinese adolescent smokers.


Wang M.,Fudan University | You L.,Fudan University | Li H.,Fudan University | Lin Y.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Background and objectives High serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are associated with mortality in patients with ESRD, but whether it still acts as a phosphaturic factor is unknown. This study aimed to explore the role of circulating FGF-23 on urinary phosphate excretion and phosphate balance in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with residual renal function (RRF). Design, setting, participants, & measurements There were 134 MHD patients enrolled in this cross-sectional study from June to July 2010. Demographics, laboratory data, and excretion capacity of phosphate were recorded. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the relationship of serum phosphate and the tubular reabsorption rate of phosphate with other factors. Results The median age of the patients was 61.0 years and 47.8% were male. Thirty percent of the patients had high urinary output (>200 ml/d) accompanied by lower serum levels of phosphate, calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, and FGF-23 compared with those with low urine output (≤200 ml/d). The independent predictors of serum phosphate were normalized protein nitrogen appearance, intact parathyroid hormone, and FGF-23 in the low urine output group and female sex and GFR in the high urine output group. The tubular reabsorption rate of phosphate decreased to 50% of the normal level in patients with RRF. Elevated circulating FGF-23 was significantly associated with lower tubular phosphate reabsorption after adjusting for GFR. Conclusions RRF is associated with significant capacity to excrete phosphate in MHD patients and high levels of serum FGF-23 may promote phosphate excretion by remnant nephrons. © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology.


Zhang Z.,Fudan University | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | Chen D.,Queen's University | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney | And 2 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2013

The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1 poses a serious threat not only to the poultry industry and wild birds but also to humans. Despite a large number of studies conducted on various aspects of this virus, its transmissibility is still poorly understood. This study quantifies the basic reproductive number (R0) of the global HPAIV H5N1 spread within domestic poultry during December 2003 to December 2009. Three different approaches were applied to estimate R0 for HPAIV H5N1: (i) epidemic doubling time; (ii) spatial distance-based nearest neighbour; and (iii) spatiotemporal distance-based nearest neighbour. These three approaches represent temporal (tR0), spatial (sR0) and spatio-temporal transmissibility (stR0), respectively. The joint application of these three approaches provides a more complete profile by characterising the transmissibility traits of infectious diseases from different perspectives. Estimates of tR0 gradually decreased over the six sequential epidemic waves (EWs) examined, suggesting that the implemented control measures were effective in reducing the number of outbreaks. However, sR0 and stR0 increased from EW1, peaked in EW3 and then gradually decreased during EW4-EW6, reflecting different aspects of disease transmissibility compared to tR0. The application of all three methods in the final EW6 showed R0 >1, suggesting that the control measures implemented did not completely interrupt the transmission cycle, and hence were insufficient to eliminate HPAIV H5N1. Close monitoring of HPAIV H5N1 outbreaks and enhanced control policies is advised.


Hu Y.,Fudan University | Hu Y.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | Zhang Z.,Fudan University | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety | And 9 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: The recent rebounds of schistosomiasis in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River pose a challenge to the current control strategies. In this study, identification of potential high risk snail habitats was proposed, as an alternative sustainable control strategy, in Xingzi County, China. Parasitological data from standardized surveys were available for 36,208 locals (aged between 6-65 years) from 42 sample villages across the county and used in combination with environmental data to investigate the spatial pattern of schistosomiasis risks. Methods. Environmental factors measured at village level were examined as possible risk factors by fitting a logistic regression model to schsitosomiasis risk. The approach of ordinary kriging was then used to predict the prevalence of schistosomiasis over the whole county. Results: Risk analysis indicated that distance to snail habitat and wetland, rainfall, land surface temperature, hours of daylight, and vegetation are significantly associated with infection and the residual spatial pattern of infection showed no spatial correlation. The predictive map illustrated that high risk regions were located close to Beng Lake, Liaohuachi Lake, and Shixia Lake. Conclusions: Those significant environmental factors can perfectly explain spatial variation in infection and the high risk snail habitats delineated by the predicted map of schistosomiasis risks will help local decision-makers to develop a more sustainable control strategy. © 2013 Hu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety and University of Ottawa
Type: | Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

A novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus that infects humans was identified in China in 2013. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate the characteristics of genomic recombination, rather than reassortment, which has been the subject of investigation in previously reported studies.Novel avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N9 genome sequences were obtained from the NCBI Influenza Virus Sequence Database and the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Database (GISAID) and a representative isolate was subjected to homogeneity analysis. A phylogenetic tree was constructed. Eight segments of the isolate were analyzed to identify segments with recombination events, the corresponding recombination fragments, and breakpoints. The evolutionary history of the recombined fragments was tracked by constructing phylogenetic trees of the recombination fragments.Among the eight segments of the novel AIV H7N9 analyzed, only the PB1 segment showed a marked recombination phenomenon, with 11 recombination events; these included five actual recombination events and six possible misalignment artifact recombination events. The most notable was the recombination of a 291-nucleotide (nt) fragment at the 490-780 nt site that was affiliated to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (A/treesparrow/Thailand/VSMU-16-RBR/2005). The phylogenetic tree of the 291-nt recombination fragment on the PB1 segment showed that the novel AIV H7N9 had a close genetic relationship to H9N2 and H5N1.The novel AIV H7N9 might have reassorted its PB1 segment from H9N2 circulating in China, and this H9N2 PB1 might have been recombined into a highly pathogenic fragment from HPAIV H5N1, which could be the reason for the high fatality rate among patients with AIV H7N9 influenza.

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