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Zhang H.Q.,Northwest University, China | Zhang H.Q.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agro environment in Northwest China | Yu X.Y.,Northwest University, China | Yu X.Y.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agro environment in Northwest China | And 6 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2016

Exploring an effective fertilization practice is crucial for achieving a sustainable dryland winter wheat cropping system. Following a split-plot design, this study was conducted to investigate the combined effect of manure (-M or +M; main plot) and various rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg N ha-1; sub plot) on grain yield, water and N use efficiencies of winter wheat, and soil nutrients. The results showed that the treatments with manure improved the grain yield by 8%, and WUE by 10% relative to that without manure throughout the study years. The highest winter wheat yield and WUE were both recorded in the M+N225 treatment, which were not significantly different from those for M+N75 and M+N150 treatment. In contrast, high levels of N fertilizer (> 150 kg N ha-1) combined with manure not only caused a reduction in the N use efficiency (NUE), but it also caused an increase in the soil residual nitrate-N (from 43.7 to 188.9 kg ha-1) relative to without manure. After three years of continuous cropping, the treatment combining manure with 150 kg N ha-1 fertilizer had the highest SOM, available P and available K, which was 24%, 379% and 102% higher than that for unfertilized treatment (CK), and 10%, 267%, and 55% higher than that for without manure, respectively. Thus, the combination of manure (17.5 t ha-1 poultry or 30 t ha-1 pig manure) with 75-150 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer is recommended for improving winter wheat yield, water and N use efficiencies, and reducing soil nitrate-N residue as well. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Du Y.-F.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Fang K.-K.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wang Z.-K.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Li H.-K.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | And 4 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2015

As soil fertility in apple orchard with clean tillage is declined continuously, interplanting herbage in orchard, which is a new orchard management model, plays an important role in improving orchard soil conditions. By using biolog micro-plate technique, this paper studied the functional diversity of soil microbial community under four species of management model in apple orchards, including clear tillage model, interplanting white clover model, interplanting small crown flower model and interplanting cocksfoot model, and the carbon source utilization characteristics of microbial community were explored, which could provide a reference for revealing driving mechanism of ecological process of orchard soil. The results showed that the functional diversity of microbial community had a significant difference among different treatments and in the order of white clover>small crown flower>cocksfoot>clear tillage. The correlation analysis showed that the average well color development (AWCD), Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index were all highly significantly positively correlated with soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, and Shannon index was significantly positively correlated with soil pH. The principal component analysis and the fingerprints of the physiological carbon metabolism of the microbial community demonstrated that grass treatments improved carbon source metabolic ability of soil microbial community, and the soil microbes with perennial legumes (White Clover and small crown flower) had a significantly higher utilization rate in carbohydrates (N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, D-Mannitol, β-Methyl-D-Glucoside), amino acids (Glycyl-L-Glutamic acid, L-Serine, L-Threonine) and polymers (Tween 40, Glycogen) than the soil microbes with clear tillage. It was considered that different treatments had the unique microbial community structure and peculiar carbon source utilization characteristics. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Chen T.,Northwest University, China | Chen T.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agro environment in Northwest China | Chang Q.,Northwest University, China | Chang Q.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agro environment in Northwest China | And 6 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Soil available nutrients play important roles in ensuring high, stable yields and avoiding water eutrophication. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation of soil available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP) and potassium (AK) was studied in Heyang County of Shaanxi Province, an ecologically vulnerable area at the south Loess Plateau. Two sets of data were used for analysis in this study, in which 545 and 618 soil samples data were from the second national soil survey in 1983, and Shannxi Province arable land soil fertility survey in 2006, respectively. Prior to data analysis, outliers were identified and removed. Logarithmic and BOX-COX transformations of data were performed to obtain normality distribution of variables. Data were analyzed with spatial autocorrelation, semi-variance function and fractal dimension analysis. Factors affecting soil nutrient change were identified using Kriging interpolation and zonal statistics. The results showed that mean concentrations of arable soil AN, AP and AK were 35. 4, 8. 2, and 195 mg/ kg in 1983, respectively; whereas their average contents in 2006 were 61. 5, 15. 8, and 196 mg/ kg, respectively. The contents of soil AN and AP were significantly increased from 1982 to 2006 by 26. 2 (74. 0%) and 7. 6 (92. 7%) mg/ kg, respectively. It was found that there was significant difference between soil available nutrient contents in 1983 and those in 2006 based on the Levene's equality of variance test. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the Moran's I values of AN, AP and AK in the two time points all showed spatial cluster at 0. 01 significance levels. Soil available nutrients in 1983 had higher Moran's I values, indicating their stronger spatial structure. In semi-variance function and fractal dimension (FD) analysis, AN, AP and AK contents in 2006 had shorter spatial correlation distance and higher fractal dimension values, suggesting that soil available nutrients in 2006 exhibited weaker spatial structure and self-similarity. Thus, results obtained from analysis with three methods confirmed their effectiveness. The spatial patterns of soil available nutrients in 1983 and 2006 were analyzed with kriging interpolation and raster computing in ArcGIS. It was found that soil AN and AP contents in most study areas showed varying degree of increase in the past 23 years. In contrast, soil AK content decreased in 59. 65% of arable land during this period. The relationships were analyzed between soil nutrient changes and land use type, fertilizer application, geomorphic type, soil type and so on. It was found that soil available nutrient changes were significantly affected by these factors. Among others, excessive N and P fertilizer use and land use change were the main reasons for soil AN and AP increase. The decrease of soil AK was due primarily to the shortage of K fertilizer.

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