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HUANG Q.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | HUANG Q.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertiliser in South Region | HUANG Q.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation | TANG S.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

Most acid sulphate soils (ASSs) in the Pearl River Delta of South China have been traditionally reclaimed for rice cultivation, but the rice yield in most of these paddy fields is lower than the average rice yield in China due to extremely high soil acidity. In the present study, a range of sulphate and acidity parameters were investigated in ASS profiles in three types of paddy fields in Taishan City (Guangdong Province, China) divided based on the local rice productivity (4500, 3000 and 1500 kg/ha) using an abandoned ASS (uncultivated) as the control treatment to ascertain key yield constraining parameters. Soluble acidity (SA), exchangeable acidity (ExA), soluble sulphate (SS) and net acid-soluble sulphate (NAS) increased with increasing soil depths from 0 to 100 cm and then decreased abruptly with further increases in the depth. However, the depth distribution of exchangeable sulphate (ES) was uniform. The soil acidity and sulphate contents differed significantly in three sampled paddy fields. The values of SA and SS in the soils at depths of 0–100 cm in the studied ASS were lower compared with those in the uncultivated ASS and the ExA in soils at depths of 0–40 cm in ASS were lower compared with those observed in the uncultivated ASS. A correlation analysis revealed that SA was strongly correlated with SS and ExA with NAS. Soluble acidity, ExA, SS and NAS in the ASS were significantly associated with rice yield. Exchangeable acidity in the plough layer (0–20 cm) of soils was the most sensitive indicator of soil quality affecting rice yield among those in soils from 0 to 140 cm depth. It is interesting to note that SA, SS and NAS were more sensitive indicators of soil quality affecting rice yield at 60–100 cm than at 0–40 cm depth. Principal component analysis showed that pH value, ExA and ES in soils at depths of 0–40 cm and SA, SS and NAS in soils at depths of 60–100 cm constituted the critical soil acidity and sulphate characteristics that were strongly correlated with rice yields. This finding implies that controlling the ExA in the plough layer and the SA and NAS in the Jarosite layer should be the major focus of studies aimed at the amelioration of ASSs. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 Source


Zhang M.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang M.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertiliser in South Region | Zhang M.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation | Tang S.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate differences in antioxidative defence and carbon–nitrogen metabolism between acid-tolerant (YJSM) and acid-sensitive (YHSM) rice cultivars under acid stress. Acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive rice were planted in both acidic soil (pH 4.21) and normal soil (pH 6.13). Forty-eight days after sowing, rice shoots and roots from four treatments were collected, and the other four replicates were harvested at seed maturity. The results revealed that the grain yield of acid-tolerant YJSM was significantly higher than that of acid-sensitive YHSM under acid stress. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate and reduced glutathione) of acid-tolerant YJSM were both higher than those of acid-sensitive YHSM under acid stress. Moreover, the enzyme activities (nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase) and product contents (soluble sugar and soluble protein) of carbon–nitrogen metabolism of acid-tolerant YJSM were higher than those of acid-sensitive YHSM under acid stress. The NO3–N and carbon (C) contents in leaves of acid-tolerant YJSM were both significantly higher than those of acid-sensitive YHSM under acid stress. This study suggests that the acid-tolerant rice cultivar has better antioxidative defence and carbon–nitrogen metabolism systems than the acid-sensitive rice cultivar and is more effective in resisting acid stress. © 2015 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Source


Zhang M.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang M.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertiliser in South Region | Zhang M.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation | Tang S.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 17 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Approximately two-thirds of the cultivated soil in China is Selenium (Se)-deficient, which often results in a lack of Se in the human population of this region. Therefore, developing an effective method to increase the Se content in crops has become a considerable effort. In this study, the uptake and distribution of Se, the dynamic changes in Se content, and the effects of different concentrations of Se on grain yield, photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (0-100g Seha-1) were measured in field experiments to clarify the response of rice crops to Se and the relationship between Se and the photosynthetic system. The results revealed that the grain yield was increased due to application of Se, peaking in areas treated with 50g Seha-1. The Se content in various parts of the rice plants significantly increased as the Se level increased. Furthermore, the Se content in each part of the rice plants decreased from the roots to the shoots to the grains, and the Se content in the shoots and the roots after Se treatment decreased from the tillering stage to the mature stage. However, little change in the grain Se content was detected throughout the entire grain growth phase. Furthermore, the application of Se enhanced photosynthesis by increasing the photosynthesis rate (Pn), the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and the transpiration efficiency (E) of rice. Se treatment enhanced the activity of the photosynthetic system by increasing Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo and decreasing Fo. The present study suggests that the changes in both the photosynthetic system and the grain Se content were closely associated with the application of Se and that an increased Se concentration in rice could induce photosynthesis, thereby increasing the grain yield of rice. The photosynthetic or chlorophyll fluorescence parameters could be used to determine the sufficiency of Se treatment during the production of Se-rich rice. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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