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Qi Y.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Qi Y.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition | Huang B.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Darilek J.L.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

An understanding of how redox conditions affect soil heavy metal fractions in rice paddies is important due to its implications for heavy metal mobility and plant uptake. Rice paddy soil samples routinely undergo oxidation prior to heavy metal analysis. Fraction distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd from paddy soil with a wide pH range was investigated. Samples were both dried according to standard protocols and also preserved under anaerobic conditions through the sampling and analysis process and heavy metals were then sequentially extracted for the exchangeable and carbonate bound fraction (acid soluble fraction), iron and manganese oxide bound fraction (reducible fraction), organic bound fraction (oxidizable fraction), and residual fraction. Fractions were affected by redox conditions across all pH ranges. Drying decreased reducible fraction of all heavy metals. Curesidual fraction, Pboxidizable fraction, Cdresidual fraction, and Niresidual fraction increased by 25%, 33%, 35%, and >60%, respectively. Pbresidual fraction, Niacid soluble fraction, and Cdoxidizable fraction decreased 33%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. Drying paddy soil prior to heavy metal analysis overestimated Pb and underestimated Cu, Ni, and Cd. In future studies, samples should be stored after injecting N2 gas to maintain the redox potential of soil prior to heavy metal analysis, and investigate the correlation between heavy metal fraction distribution under field conditions and air-dried samples. © 2014 Qi et al. Source

Ji P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Ji P.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition | Qu G.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Qu G.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition | Li J.,Dalian University of Technology
Plasma Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The pentachlorophenol (PCP) adsorbed granular activated carbon (GAC) was treated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The effects of DBD plasma on the structure of GAC and PCP decomposition were analyzed by N2 adsorption, thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of PCP on GAC were fitted with different kinetics and isotherm models, respectively. The results indicate that the types of N2 adsorption isotherm of GAC are not changed by DBD plasma, while the specific surface area and pore volume increase after DBD plasma treatment. It is found that the weight loss of the saturated GAC is the highest, on the contrary, the weight loss of DBD treated GAC is the least because of reduced PCP residue on the GAC. The XPS spectra and SEM image suggest that some PCP on the GAC is removed by DBD plasma, and the surface of GAC treated by DBD plasma presents irregular and heterogeneous morphology. The GC-MS identification of by-products shows that two main dechlorination intermediate products, tetra-chlorophenol and trichlorophenol, are distinguished. The fitting results of experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics indicate that the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models can be used for the prediction of the kinetics of virgin GAC and DBD treated GAC for PCP adsorption, and the Langmuir isotherm model fits better with the data of adsorption isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm in the adsorption of PCP on virgin GAC and DBD treated GAC. Source

Li R.,Northwest University, China | Li R.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition | Wang Q.,Northwest University, China | Zhang Z.,Northwest University, China | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting. © 2014 Taylor and Francis. Source

Liu H.J.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition | Liu H.J.,Key Laboratory of Plant Soil Interactions | Liu H.J.,China Agricultural University | Liu H.J.,ShenYang Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2010

A pot experiment investigated the effects of iron (Fe) fertilization on cadmium (Cd) uptake by rice seedlings irrigated with Cd solution. Shoot dry weight was significantly affected by Fe addition, and root dry weight was affected by Cd addition. Iron supply was the dominant factor affecting the length of the longest leaf and the soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value. Cadmium concentra- tions were much greater in roots than in dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extracts or shoots, and a significant correlation was found between shoot Fe and Cd concentrations. Enhanced Cd uptake observed at high Fe supply implies that enhanced Fe nutrition may counteract the adverse effects of Cd on plants. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Qu G.,Northwest University, China | Qu G.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition | Liang D.,Northwest University, China | Liang D.,Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition | And 5 more authors.
Plasma Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In this study, two regeneration methods (dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and ozone (O3) regeneration) of saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) with pentachlorophenol (PCP) were compared. The results show that the two regeneration methods can eliminate contaminants from GAC and recover its adsorption properties to some extent. Comparing the DBD plasma with O 3 regeneration, the adsorption rate and the capacity of the GAC samples after DBD plasma regeneration are greater than those after O3 regeneration. O3 regeneration decreases the specific surface area of GAC and increases the acidic surface oxygen groups on the surface of GAC, which causes a decrease in PCP on GAC uptake. With increasing regeneration cycles, the regeneration efficiencies of the two methods decrease, but the decrease in the regeneration efficiencies of GAC after O3 regeneration is very obvious compared with that after DBD plasma regeneration. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir models using the non-linear regression technique, and all the adsorption equilibrium isotherms fit the Langmuir model fairly well, which demonstrates that the DBD plasma and ozone regeneration processes do not appear to modify the adsorption process, but to shift the equilibrium towards lower adsorption concentrations. Analyses of the weight loss of GAC show that O3 regeneration has a lower weight loss than DBD plasma regeneration. Source

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