Zhengzhou, China
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Chen C.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | Chen C.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology | Chen C.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xia Q.-W.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | And 11 more authors.
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2014

The intensity of pupal diapause in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was investigated under both laboratory and natural conditions. By transferring diapausing pupae induced under LD 11:13, LD 12:12 and LD 13:11 at 20, 22 and 25°C to 25°C combined with LD 15:9 to terminate diapause the rearing day length of 11h evoked greater intensity of diapause than did 12 and 13h at 25°C; whereas the rearing temperature of 25°C evoked more intense diapause than did 20 and 22°C under LD 11:13. By transferring diapausing pupae induced under LD 12:12 at 20 and 22°C to six temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28 and 31°C combined with LD 15:9 to terminate diapause, the duration of diapause was significantly shortened from 146 days at 18°C to 24 days at 31°C, showing that high temperatures significantly accelerate diapause development. Furthermore, the duration of diapause was significantly longer at the rearing temperature of 22°C than that at 20°C when the diapause-terminating temperatures were 20 and 22°C. Chilling at 5°C did not shorten the duration of diapause but lengthened it when chilling period was included. However, chilling plays an important role in synchronizing adult emergence. Rearing temperature of 22°C also evoked more intense diapause than did 20°C in most chilling treatments. When the overwintering pupae were transferred at different times from natural temperatures to 25°C, it was found that the earlier the transfer took place, the earlier the adults emerged when the time spent under natural conditions was included. However, cool temperatures before March showed an enhanced effect on diapause development at 20°C, suggesting that the high diapause-terminating temperature can offset the effect of chilling on diapause development. The result of diapause termination under natural conditions suggests that the developmental threshold for post-diapause development in H. armigera should be around 17.5°C. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.


Li H.B.,CSIRO | Xie G.Q.,CSIRO | Xie G.Q.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xie G.Q.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | And 10 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (CR) are two wheat diseases caused by the same Fusarium pathogens. Progress towards CR resistance could benefit from FHB-resistant germplasm if the same genes are involved in resistance to these two different diseases. Two independent studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between host resistances to these two diseases. In the first study 32 genotypes were assessed and no significant correlation between their reactions to FHB and CR was detected. The second study was based on a QTL analysis of a doubled haploid population derived from a variety with resistance to both diseases. Results from this study showed that loci conferring resistance to FHB and CR are located on different chromosomes. Together, these results suggest that, despite a common aetiology, different host genes are involved in the resistance against FHB and CR in wheat. Thus, although it is possible that genes affecting both diseases may exist in other germplasm or under different conditions, separate screening seems to be needed in identifying sources of CR resistance. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Chen C.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xia Q.-W.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Chen Y.-S.,Jiangxi Environmental Engineering Vocational College | Xiao H.-J.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2012

Pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera display a diapause in response to the exposure of their larvae to short photoperiods and relatively low temperatures. Due to geographic variation in photoperiodic response, moths from a northern population, Langfang (39°32'N, 116°41'E), enter diapause in response to short daylengths (D strain) while moths from a southern population, Ledong (18°28'N, 108°53'E), exhibit no diapause under the same conditions (N strain). In the present study, crosses between the two strains are utilized to evaluate the inheritance of diapause under different photoperiods at temperatures 20, 22 and 25°C. The moths in both reciprocal crosses and backcrosses to D strain showed a clear long-day response, similar to that of the D strain, suggesting that the photoperiodic response controlling diapause in this moth is heritable. The incidences of diapause for all F1 hybrids were intermediate between those of their parents. However, the incidences of diapause at 20°C in F1 (N×D) strain were significantly higher than those in F1 (D×N) strain, indicating that the male parent plays a more important role in the determination of diapause. The N strain also showed a short-day photoperiodic response at the lower temperature of 20°C, indicating that the N strain still has the capability to enter a photoperiodically induced diapause, depending on the rearing temperature. Results from all crosses under photoperiods LD 12:12 or LD 13:11 at 22°C showed that inheritance of diapause in H. armigera did not fit an additive hypothesis and that the capacity for diapause was transmitted genetically in the manner of incomplete dominance with non-diapause characteristic partially dominant over the diapausing. Diapause duration in hybrid pupae was also influenced by their inheritance from both parents. Diapause duration in hybrid pupae was intermediate between those of their parents. These results reveal that both diapause induction and duration are under the control of polygene. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Wu L.,Henan Agricultural University | Wu L.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | Zu X.,Henan Agricultural University | Wang S.,Henan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) infects maize, sorghum, sugarcane and other poaceous species throughout the world. SCMV is an important virus pathogen, especially in European and Chinese maize production, causing serious losses in grain and forage yields in susceptible cultivars. Like other potyviruses, SCMV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with a genome size of approximately 10 kb in length. SCMV is naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. Control of the aphid vectors is not effective because of the non-persistent mode of virus transmission. Therefore, cultivation of resistant maize varieties is the preferred way to control SCMV infections. The high incidence of co-infection and the occurrence of new strains or genome variations indicate that SCMV will continue to be a threat to industry. Aspects concerning virus structure and genome organization, geographic distribution, diagnosis and strain characterization, and genetic variation are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the control of SCMV disease. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Xia Z.,Henan Agricultural University | Xia Z.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | Sun K.,Henan Agricultural University | Wang M.,Henan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Sulfite oxidase (SO) plays an important role in sulfite metabolism. To date, the molecular mechanisms of sulfite metabolism in plants are largely unknown. Previously, a full-length cDNA of the putative sulfite oxidase gene from maize (ZmSO) was cloned, and its response to SO2/sulfite stress at the transcriptional level was characterized. In this study, the recombinant ZmSO protein was purified from E.coli. It exhibited sulfite-dependent activity and had strong affinity for the substrate sulfite. Over-expression (OE) of ZmSO in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerance to sulfite stress. The plants showed much less damage, less sulfite accumulation, but greater amounts of sulfate. This suggests that tolerance of transgenic plants to sulfite was enhanced by increasing SO expression levels. Interestingly, H2O2 accumulation levels by histochemical detection and quantitative determination in the OE plants were much less than those in the wild-type upon sulfite stress. Furthermore, reductions of catalase levels detected in the OE lines were considerably less than in the wild-type plants. This indicates that SO may play an important role in protecting CAT from inhibition by excess sulfite. Collectively, these data demonstrate that transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing ZmSO enhance tolerance to excess sulfite through sulfite oxidation and catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide scavenging. This is the first SO gene from monocots to be functionally characterized. © 2012 Xia et al.


Liu J.,Henan Agricultural University | Xia Z.,Henan Agricultural University | Xia Z.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | Wang M.,Henan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Drought is one of the most important limiting factors in crop production. In our previous study, a putative Arabidopsis thaliana SALT- AND DROUGHT-INDUCED RING FINGER1 (AtSDIR1) homolog encoding a RING-. finger protein from Zea mays (ZmRFP1) was cloned and its expression pattern and Ub E3 ligase activity were characterized. However, it is uncertain that ZmRFP1 acts as a positive regulator during drought stress. In this study, we further characterized ZmRFP1 in transgenic tobacco to investigate drought tolerance and possible function mechanisms. Overexpression of ZmRFP1 enhanced drought tolerance in tobacco. The transgenic tobacco lines had more closed stomatal pores, higher proline accumulation, but lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) when compared with the wild type (WT) under drought stress. Further investigation showed that ZmRFP1 transgenic plants displayed higher SOD and CAT activities, increased NtSOD and NtCAT transcript levels, and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation under drought stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ZmRFP1 confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco not only by increasing the ability to retain water, but also by reducing ROS accumulation and membrane damage through enhancing the antioxidant system. ZmRFP1 might serve as a candidate gene in genetic improvement for drought tolerance engineering in cereal crop plants. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Xia Z.,Henan Agricultural University | Xia Z.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | Su X.,Henan Tobacco Company | Wu J.,Henan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Sulfite oxidase (SO) catalyzes the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate and thus has important roles in diverse metabolic processes. However, systematic molecular and functional investigations on the putative SO from tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) have hitherto not been reported. In this work, a full-length cDNA encoding putative sulfite oxidase from N. benthamiana (NbSO) was isolated. The deduced NbSO protein shares high homology and typical structural features with other species SOs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that NbSO cDNA clone encodes a tobacco SO isoform. Southern blot analysis suggests that NbSO is a single-copy gene in the N. benthamiana genome. The NbSO transcript levels were higher in aerial tissues and were up-regulated in N. benthamiana during sulfite stress. Reducing the SO expression levels through virus-induced gene silencing caused a substantial accumulation in sulfite content and less sulfate accumulation in N. benthamiana leaves when exposed to sulfite stress, and thus resulted in decreased tolerance to sulfite stress. Taken together, this study improves our understanding on the molecular and functional properties of plant SO and provides genetic evidence on the involvement of SO in sulfite detoxification in a sulfite-oxidizing manner in N. benthamiana plants. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Xiong S.,Henan Agricultural University | Xiong S.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | Che F.,Henan Agricultural University | Che F.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | And 8 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Fertilization with different forms of nitrogen is an important measure to regulate nitrogen metabolism of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Soil microorganisms and enzymes play significant roles in nutrient transformation and decomposition. Their activities may affect how different forms of nitrogen fertilizer influence nitrogen metabolism in wheat. To understand the effects of nitrogen form on soil nitrogen bacteria group and soil enzyme activity, pot experiments using the wheat cultivar 'Yumai 50'were carried out in a sandy loam at the Experimental Farm of Henan Agricultural University in 2009 and 2010. The soil contained 14. 29 g/ kg organic matter, 1. 50 g/ kg total N, 16. 9 mg/ kg Olsen-P and 195. 95 mg/ kg NH4 OAc-K. Each pot (30 cm diameter, 38 cm tall) was filled with 20 kg of sieved dry soil. Nitrogen forms were NH-2 - N as CO(NH2)2 -N, NH+ 4 -N as NH4 HCO3, and NO- 3 -N as NaNO3. The nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide was applied to each pot. Prior to sowing, each pot received 3. 06 g N, 2. 9 g P2 O5, and 3. 3 g K2 O; an additional 2. 04 g N was also applied to each pot during the wheat elongation stage. Seven plants from each pot were selected when the plants had five leaves. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 replications, and all pots were managed in the same way. Rhizosphere soil samples from a depth of 5-20 cm for each treatment were taken at elongation stage (March 25), anthesis (April 30), 14 days after anthesis (May 14), and 28 days after anthesis (May 28). Soil samples were put into sterile bags and transported to the lab as quickly as possible. Part of each soil sample was sieved through a 1 mm screen for analysis of (1) the activities of amination, nitrobacteria, nitrite bacteria, and denitrifying bacteria and (2) inorganic nitrogen (NH+ 4 -N and NO- 3 -N) contents, and part was air-dried for (3) determination of soil enzyme (urease and protease) activities. This study showed that the activity of nitrogen bacteria group and enzymes in rhizosphere soils planted with wheat responded differently to nitrogen form. Overall, amination, nitrobacteria, nitrite bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and protease activities graphed as inverted "V" -shapes that peaked 14 days after anthesis. Urease activity peaked at the jointing stage and was much higher than the activities of amination, nitrobacteria, nitrite bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and proteases in all studied stages. The different nitrogen forms had different effects on soil nitrogen bacteria group, soil enzyme activity, and inorganic nitrogen. When CO(NH2)2 -N was applied to Yumai 50, the activities of urease, protease, and amination in the rhizosphere soil increased substantially. The content of NH+ 4 -N in the soil was highest when NH4 HCO3 was applied, and the content of NO- 3 -N in the soil was highest when CO(NH2)2 -N was provided. Therefore, CO(NH2)2 -N could promote decomposition and the use of organic nitrogen, and the conversion of ammonia in the soil was promoted under NaNO3. Nitrogen form affected the content of organic nitrogen in the soil by affecting nitrogen bacteria and the activities of enzymes in the rhizosphere.


Chen Y.-S.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | Chen Y.-S.,Nanchang University | Chen Y.-S.,Jiangxi Environmental Engineering Vocational College | Chen C.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2013

Overwintering diapause in Helicoverpa armigera, a multivoltine species, is controlled by response to photoperiod and temperature. Photoperiodic responses from 5 different geographical populations showed that the variation in critical photoperiod for diapause induction was positively related to the latitudinal origin of the populations at 20, 22 and 25. °C. Diapause response to photoperiod and temperature was quite different between northern and southern populations, being highly sensitive to photoperiod in northern populations and temperature dependence in southern populations. Diapause pupae from southern population showed a significantly shorter diapause duration than from northern-most populations when they were cultured at 20, 22, 25, 28 and 31. °C; by contrast, overwintering pupae from southern populations emerged significantly later than from northern populations when they were maintained in natural conditions, showing a clinal latitudinal variation in diapause termination. Diapause-inducing temperature had a significant effect on diapause duration, but with a significant difference between southern and northern populations. The higher rearing temperature of 22. °C evoked a more intense diapause than did 20. °C in northern populations; but a less intense diapause in southern population. Cold exposure (chilling) is not necessary to break the pupal diapause. The higher the temperature, the quicker the diapause terminated. Response of diapause termination to chilling showed that northern populations were more sensitive to chilling than southern population.All results demonstrate that H. armigera is not genetically homogeneous throughout its range, but rather is composed of distinct populations genetically adapted to local environmental conditions despite the potential for gene flow via seasonal migration of adults. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Xia Z.,Henan Agricultural University | Xia Z.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | Wei Y.,Henan Agricultural University | Wei Y.,Key Laboratory of Physiology | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA) proteins are important regulators involved in diverse cellular functions. To date, the molecular mechanisms of AAA proteins involved in response to salt and drought stresses in plants are largely unknown. In this study, a putative SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) ortholog from Zea mays (ZmSKD1), which encodes a putative AAA protein, was isolated. The transcript levels of ZmSKD1 were higher in aerial tissues and were markedly up-regulated by salt or drought stress. Over-expression of ZmSKD1 in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerances not only to salt but to drought. Moreover, reactive oxygen species accumulations in ZmSKD1 transgenic lines were relative less than those in wild-type plants during salt or PEG-induced water stress. The interaction between ZmSKD1 and NtLIP5 (Lyst-Interacting Protein 5 homolog from Nicotiana tabacum) was confirmed by both yeast two-hybrid and immuno-precipitation assays; moreover, the α-helix-rich domain in the C-terminus of ZmSKD1 was identified to be required for its interaction with NtLIP5 using truncation mutations. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ZmSKD1could be involved in salt and drought stress responses and its over-expression enhances salt or drought stress tolerance possibly through interacting with LIP5 in tobacco. This study may facilitate our understandings of the biological roles of SKD1-mediated ESCRT pathway under stress conditions in higher plants and accelerate genetic improvement of crop plants tolerant to environmental stresses. © 2013 Xia et al.

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