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Dong R.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Dong R.,Key Laboratory of Original Agro Environmental Quality | Xu Y.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Xu Y.,Key Laboratory of Original Agro Environmental Quality | And 7 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2015

A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil and foliar application of ZnSO4 with different dosages on growth and concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and other trace elements in a low cadmium accumulating cultivar of Brassica chinensis. The regulating mechanism was elucidated through analyses of Cd uptake and transport in the low cadmium accumulating cultivar and soil available Cd concentrations. Results show that soil zinc (Zn) application significantly increased shoot biomass of the tested low cadmium accumulating cultivar, with a maximal increase of 71.4% compared to the control. Meanwhile, foliar Zn treatments had insignificant effect on shoot biomass of the low cadmium accumulating cultivar. Soil and foliar Zn applications significantly decreased shoot Cd concentrations of the low cadmium accumulating cultivar, with a maximal reduction of 41.4% compared to the control. Although the difference between the Zn dosages of soil application and foliar spray were 8 to 10 folds, the reduction of shoot Cd concentration due to foliar Zn application was not significantly different from that due to soil Zn application. Soil Zn application increased significantly shoots copper and ferrum concentrations of the low cadmium accumulating cultivar, and foliar Zn application had insignificant effect on shoots copper and ferrum concentrations. However, soil and foliar Zn applications decreased significantly shoots manganese concentrations of the low cadmium accumulating cultivar. Soil Zn application increased the soil available Zn concentrations and had insignificant effect on the soil available Cd concentrations. Soil and foliar Zn applications reduced significantly Cd net uptake via roots and Cd translocation factor of Brassica chinensis. The shoot Cd concentration was positively correlated with Cd net uptake via roots, and not significantly correlated with Cd translocation factor, which indicated that inhibition of Cd uptake by root resulted in decrease in shoot Cd concentration of Brassica chinensis under soil and foliar Zn treatments. In summary, foliar spray of ZnSO4 is suitable for safe production of the low cadmium accumulating cultivar of Brassica chinensis in Cd polluted soils. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved. Source


Guo B.,International Center for Bamboo And Rattan | Dai S.,Tianjin Landscape gardening Institute | Wang R.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Wang R.,Key Laboratory of Original Agro Environmental Quality | And 5 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2015

Few studies have explored the combined effects of elevated CO2 (EC) and Cd treatments on poplars and willows. The objective of this study is to determine how growth and phytoremediation efficiency are enhanced by EC. For this purpose, this study investigated the combined effects of EC and Cd treatments on the growth, gas exchange, antioxidant defense, and Cd accumulation in one poplar genotype (Populus×euramericana (Dode) cv. 'Nanlin-95' (NL95)) and one willow genotype (Salix jiangsuensis CL. '172' (J172)), which were grown on three Cd-contaminated soil in six open-top chambers. Under Cd treatment, plant growth was decreased, Cd accumulation was increased, and the photosynthesis and malondialdehyde concentration were unchanged in leaves of two tree species. At EC levels for both species, plant growth, total Cd uptake, CO2 assimilation rate, and intrinsic water use efficiency were increased; stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were decreased; and Cd concentrations were unchanged. EC also decreased malondialdehyde content in two species grown in Cd-contaminated soil and increased antioxidant enzymatic activities in J172 grown in high Cd-contaminated soil. At EC, plant growth and total Cd uptake exhibited greater increase in high Cd-contaminated soil than in low Cd-contaminated soil. These findings suggest that EC stimulated plant growth by increasing leaf photosynthesis and enhanced phytoremediation efficiency, particularly at high levels of Cd exposure. EC decreased oxidative damage by stimulating photosynthesis and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities. Cd treatment inhibited the growth of two tree species, and this suppression was unrelated to photosynthesis. Under Cd treatment, the well-maintained photosynthesis is assumed responsible for decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation and avoiding membrane lipid peroxidation. © 2015. Source


Tian S.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Tian S.,Key Laboratory of Original Agro Environmental Quality | Tian S.,Baoding University | Jia Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2014

The biomass of plants for the purpose of phytoremediation is often small. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can enhance plant biomass and so, it is reasonable to draw such an assumption that CO2 can be used to help plants to phytoremediate heavy metal contaminated soils through enhancing the biomass of remediating plants. To identify this assumption, a micro-plot study in six separate growth chambers was conducted to investigate the effect of high CO2 levels (approximately 1000±50μLL-1) on Cu accumulation and the remediation potential of three rape varieties and another five crop and pasture species grown in soils contaminated with Cu (485mgCukg-1, denoted as soil-L, and 1200mgCukg-1, denoted as soil-H). The results showed that independently of the CO2 treatment, the shoot biomass and Cu concentration in the eight plants varied with the species and soil Cu levels. The plants grown in soil-L produced a higher aboveground biomass than those grown in the more heavily contaminated soil-H, but the Cu levels were high in all the plants grown in soil-H. Regardless of the CO2 treatment, the shoot biomass and Cu concentration in the plant parts also varied with the species and soil Cu levels. Overall, the exposure of all the plants to elevated CO2 resulted in a biomass increase of 6-136% and a significantly higher remediation capacity. The results indicate that the ever-increasing atmospheric CO2 may enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Cu contaminated soils; however it also suggests a risk of food safety under the future scenario of elevated atmospheric CO2. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Sun Y.,Key Laboratory of Original Agro Environmental Quality | Sun Y.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Xu Y.,Key Laboratory of Original Agro Environmental Quality | Xu Y.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2013

Modified QuEChERS-HLPC (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) methods for the analysis of mesotrione in maize and soil were developed and validated. At three fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg kg-1 mesotrione, the recoveries of mesotrione in maize plants, maize and soil were in the range of 85.95 %-96.05 %, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.89 %-9.83 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of method was 0.001 mg kg -1 for maize and soil. In the supervised field trials, the degradation rates of mesotrione were described using first-order kinetics and mesotrione dissipation in maize plants coincided with C t = 1.735e-1.0194t with the half-life 3.94 days in Tianjin, and C t = 4.9536e-0.7237t with the half-life 5.10 days in Jilin. As for soil, C t = 20.272e-1.208t with the half-life 2.98 days in Tianjin, and C t = 5.5835e-8141t with the half-life 4.49 days in Jilin. At pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 0 and 20 days, the final residue levels of mesotrione could not be detected in maize and soil at the recommended dosage and 1.5 times recommended dosage. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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