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Huang H.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication | Hu G.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication | Yu F.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication
International Journal of Communication Systems | Year: 2013

SUMMARY Energy efficiency has become an important design consideration in geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor networks because the sensor nodes are energy constrained and battery recharging is usually not feasible. However, numerous existing energy-aware geographic routing protocols are energy-inefficient when the detouring mode is involved in the routing. Furthermore, most of them rarely or at most implicitly take into account the energy efficiency in the advance. In this paper, we present a novel energy-aware geographic routing (EAGR) protocol that attempts to minimize the energy consumption for end-to-end data delivery. EAGR adaptively uses an existing geographic routing protocol to find an anchor list based on the projection distance of nodes for guiding packet forwarding. Each node holding the message utilizes geographic information, the characteristics of energy consumption, and the metric of advanced energy cost to make forwarding decisions, and dynamically adjusts its transmission power to just reach the selected node. Simulation results demonstrate that our scheme exhibits higher energy efficiency, smaller end-to-end delay, and better packet delivery ratio compared to other geographic routing protocols. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Huang H.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication | Hu G.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication | Yu F.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication
European Transactions on Telecommunications | Year: 2011

For energy-constrained wireless sensor networks, we present an Energy-aware Multipath Geographic Routing (EMGR) protocol. EMGR utilizes geographic information, the characteristics of energy consumption and the metric of advanced energy cost to select the next forwarding node, and uses a dynamic anchor list to shift routing path for load balance. Simulation results show that EMGR is superior to other protocols in terms of energy efficiency, network lifetime, end-to-end delay, and packet delivery ratio. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Huang H.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication | Hu G.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication | Yu F.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Optimal Fiber Sensing and Communication
IET Communications | Year: 2011

Energy conservation and interference reduction are the two ultimate goals in the design of network protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Energy-aware geographic routing has been considered as an attractive routing scheme for energy conservation in WSNs owing to its desirable scalability and simplicity. However, most energy-aware geographic routing protocols seldom consider interference reduction. The authors present an energy-aware interference-sensitive geographic routing (EIGR) protocol, which focuses on minimising the total network energy consumption and reducing interference. EIGR adaptively uses an anchor list to guide data delivery, and selects the minimum-interference link from energy-optimal relay region for data delivery. To further reduce the energy consumption and interference, EIGR adjusts the transmission power of each forwarding node so as just to reach the selected next forwarding node. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach exhibits noticeably higher energy efficiency, shorter end-to-end delay and higher packet delivery ratio compared with other geographic routing protocols. © 2011 © The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

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