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Yang F.-K.,Gansu Academy of Agricultural science | Yang F.-K.,Key Laboratory of Northwest Drought Resistan Crop Farming | He B.-L.,Gansu Academy of Agricultural science | He B.-L.,Key Laboratory of Northwest Drought Resistan Crop Farming | Gao S.-M.,Gansu Academy of science
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

The climate of Gansu turned to be overall warming-drying and partly warming-wetting since 1986. In contrast to that of 1960, the average annual temperature had raised by 1.1℃ with the average annual precipitation decreased by 28 mm correspondingly, which made the arid region expanded southward by 50 km in 2010. Climate warming increased the growth period effective accumulated temperature of main food grain crops and lengthened the crop growth period. It changed crop maturity, crop disposition, cropping system and generally increased the cultivatable area and planting altitude above the sea level of major crops and expanded northward the multiple cropping system, which further resulted in expansion of autumn grain crop sown area, shrink of summer grain crop sown area, and replacement of strong winter early maturing varieties by weak winter middle late maturing varieties. It benefited the crop yield by increasing the use efficiency of photo-thermal resources. Warming-wetting climate increased the climate productivity of oasis crop while warming-drying weather decreased the climate productivity of rainfed crops, which were mostly determined by the precipitation regimes and water conditions. Any advanced technique that can increase precipitation use ratio and water use efficiency as well as improve and promote soil quality and fertility should be regarded as an effective countermeasure to increase food grain production under climate change in Gsansu. So, selecting and breeding new crop varieties with the characteristics of strong resistance, weak winter, middle-late mature and high water use efficiency, establishing new planting structure and cropping system that suitable to the precipitation and temperature features of changed climate, are the development direction of food grain production in Gansu to cope with the climate change. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.

Yang F.-K.,Gansu Academy of Agricultural science | Yang F.-K.,Key Laboratory of Northwest Drought Resistan Crop Farming | Wang L.-M.,Gansu Academy of Agricultural science | Wang L.-M.,Key Laboratory of Northwest Drought Resistan Crop Farming | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

Taking soybean cultivar Jindou 23 as test object, a field experiment was conducted at the Zhenyuan experimental station of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences to study the effects of various plastic mulching treatments on the soil moisture and temperature and soybean grain yield on a semiarid dryland of Northwest China. Four treatments were installed, i.e., plastic film mulching with double ridges and furrow planting (FMRFC), plastic film mulching without ridges and with furrow planting (FMFC), plastic film mulching with strip planting (FMSC), and no mulch strip planting (NMSC, CK). During the drought year (the precipitation in soybean growth period was 246.3 mm) and wet year (407 mm), the daily soil temperature in 0-20 cm layer in all mulching treatments varied in "S" shape, and its fluctuation became smaller with soybean growth. The mulching treatments raised the daily average soil temperature in 0-20 cm layer by an average of 0.5-2.5°C from the seedling (VE-V3) to seed filling (R6) stage, with the average soil temperature in whole growth period raised by 1.3-1.6°C. Both in dry year and in wet year, mulching treatments promoted the soil moisture consumption in 0-120 cm layer by soybean, but increased the average soil moisture content and water storage in 0-200 cm layer by 1.2%-1.4% and 62.7-70.3 mm, respectively. As compared to CK, treatments FMRFC and FMFC had significant effects in improving the soil temperature and moisture environment in dry year, and greatly improved the yieldrelated traits such as plant height, branching number, pods per plant, and 100-seed mass. FMRFC increased the yield by 27.7%-51.1% and raised the water use efficiency (WUE) by 47.7%-56.3%, whereas FMFC increased the yield by 10.2%-25.2% and raised the WUE by 33.3%-35.4%, as compared to CK. It was suggested that FMRFC and FMFC could be the most efficient planting systems for the soybean production in the dryland farming of Northwest China.

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