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Kong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu H.,Nanjing University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stalk-based biochar was prepared using oxygen-limited pyrolysis. We evaluated phenanthrene (PHE) and Hg(II) sorption, from single and binary component solutions, onto prepared biochar. We found that the prepared biochar efficiently removed PHE and Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. The isotherms for PHE and Hg(II) sorption could be described using linear and Tóth models, respectively, both with high regression coefficients (R 2 > 0.995). When PHE and Hg(II) coexisted in an aqueous solution, we observed direct competitive sorption, each one suppressing another. Our results provide insight into the recycling of agricultural residues, and also a new application for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated water utilizing biochar from agricultural residue. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Shi J.-Y.,Zhejiang University | Yuan X.-F.,Zhejiang Chinese Medical University | Yuan X.-F.,Key Laboratory of Non point Sources Pollution Control | Lin H.-R.,Xiamen University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

To explore rhizosphere effects, geographical differences and their effects on the bacterial community associated with the geoherb Fritillaria thunbergii, some physicochemical properties of soil samples (3 sampling sites × 2 habitats (rhizosphere and bulk soil)) were measured and the soil bacterial community detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the three regions, soil pH varied between 4.48 and 7.73 indicating that F. thunbergii could grow both in acid and slightly alkaline soil. As the authentic Dao-di producing area, Ningbo showed the highest soil quality with the highest content of organic matter (OM) (2.46%), phosphatase (268 mg kg -1 24 h -1) and urease activity (1481 mg kg -1 24 h -1). In comparison with the bulk soil, pH, organic carbon content, and phosphatase and urease activities were all lower in the rhizosphere, suggesting that the roots may secrete some unique metabolites in root exudates. Statistical analyses showed that soil properties of Ningbo and Panan in Zhejiang province were more similar to each other than those in Nantong in Jiangsu province. In addition, PCR-DGGE analysis showed that main bacterial population identified in F. thunbergii was proteobacteria (18 bands, 55%), acidobacteria (4, 12%), actinobacteria (4, 12%) and bacterioidetes (6, 18%). Overall, soil properties and microbial communities varied not only between the rhizosphere and bulk soil but also among the three regions. We suggest that the plant, together with the soil properties, cooperatively shape the structure of the rhizosphere bacteria, and that the soil properties have a close relationship with the geoherbalism of F. thunbergii. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Kong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2011

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stalk-based carbons were prepared by phosphoric acid activation at different carbonization temperatures. Characteristics of the prepared carbon, including specific surface area, iodine number, and amount of methylene blue sorption, were determined. Experiments on phenanthrene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene, as representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), removal from aqueous solution by the prepared carbon were conducted at different levels of carbon addition. The results indicated that the specific surface area, iodine number, and amount of methylene blue sorption increased with an increase of carbonization temperature. The maximum values were observed at 700°C and were 287.63 m 2 g -1, 508.99 mg g -1, and 90.14 mg g -1, respectively. The removal efficiencies of phenanthrene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene tended to increase with increasing carbon amounts and carbonization temperature. The optimal removal performance was obtained under the experimental conditions of carbon concentrations of 0.04 g 32 mL -1 and carbonization temperature of 700°C, and the removal efficiencies of phenanthrene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene were 99.89, 100, and 95.64%, respectively. The performance of the prepared carbon was superior to that of commercial activated carbon. Additionally, for the same carbon concentrations, the removal efficiency of PAHs on prepared carbons followed the order: phenanthrene > naphthalene > acenaphthene. Results obtained from this work provide some insight into the reuse of an agricultural residue, and also provide a new application for the treatment of PAHs in contaminated water utilizing activated carbon prepared from agricultural residues. © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. Source

Qian H.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Qian H.,Key Laboratory of Non point Sources Pollution Control | Pan X.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Shi S.,Zhejiang University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Nonylphenol (NP) is regarded as a kind of persistent organic pollutant which exists ubiquitously in the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of NP on Chlorella vulgaris physiological indices and gene transcription. The results showed that NP stress inhibited algal growth in short-term bioassay. NP also decreased chlorophyll content, including chl a, chl b, and total chlorophyll. NP caused oxidant hurt by overproducing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which might destroy the overall membrane system to cause malondialdehyde content increase. NP inhibited photosynthesis-related gene transcription in C. vulgaris after 24 to 48 h exposure. The lowest transcript levels of psaB, psbA, and rbcL in C. vulgaris decreased to only 18.5%, 7%, and 4% of the control, respectively. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NP is toxic to fresh algae growth by affecting the photosynthesis-related genes transcription and overproducing ROS to disrupt cell structure in a short period. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Hua L.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Hua L.,Key Laboratory of Non point Sources Pollution Control | Chen Y.,Key Laboratory of Non point Sources Pollution Control | Wu W.,Key Laboratory of Non point Sources Pollution Control
Environmental Technology | Year: 2012

In this research, the effects of bamboo charcoal on soil contaminant accumulation, soil fertility and plant growth were investigated. The results indicated that sludge composted with bamboo charcoal (BCS) significantly increased plant growth and decreased the mobility of Zn, Cu and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), compared with the composted sludge without bamboo charcoal (CS), with lower absorption and less accumulation of contaminants by the plants. Concentrations of Cu in turfgrass treated with CS were 11.7-23.4% higher than those of turfgrass treated with BCS. Concentrations of Zn in turfgrass treated with CS were 14.2-25.9% higher than those of turfgrass treated with BCS. The concentration of 16PAHs (total contents of 16 PAHs that are listed by USEPA as priority pollutants for remediation based on their persistence and carcinogenic potential) in ryegrass grown in yellow loamy soil amended with CS was 680gkg -1 and was higher than that of ryegrass treated with BCS (only 439gkg -1). The biomass of fescue in BCS-treated soils increased by 13-16% compared with that of fescue in CS-treated soil. The biomass of ryegrass in BCS-treated soil was 20-27% higher than that in CS-treated soil. Chlorophyll content in turfgrass grown in CS-treated soil was lower than that in grass grown in BCS-treated soil. Compared with the control, chlorophyll contents in plants grown in soil with CS increased by about 13-22%, whereas those in plants grown in soil with BCS increased by about 20-32%. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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