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Jiang Y.,Peking University | Jiang Y.,Key Laboratory of Neuroscience | Wang H.,General Hospital of Armed Police Forces | Liu Z.,CAS Institute of Automation | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The javascript: void(0)manipulation and sustained effects of acupuncture have been investigated in multiple studies, but several findings are inconsistent with one another. One possible explanation for these discrepancies is that different modalities of acupuncture were utilized in these studies. In the present study, we investigated both the manipulation and sustained effects of acupuncture in different modalities, including manual acupuncture (MA), electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS). MA, EA, TEAS and sensory control stimulation were applied to 18 healthy subjects, and combined block-designed and resting-state fMRI scans were performed. In analyzing these data, the block-designed datasets were used to assess the manipulation effect by employing a modified general linear model. The data from the resting states, before and after stimulation, were used to explore the brain networks involved in the sustained effect. The results showed that the two 1-min stimulation periods produced similar activation patterns in the sensory control with positive activation in the sensorimotor areas and negative activation in the default mode areas. Although similar patterns could be detected in the first stimulation period in MA, EA and TEAS, no positive activation result was observed in the second stimulation period, and EA showed a more extensive deactivation compared to MA and TEAS. Additionally, all three of the modalities of acupuncture stimulation could increase the instinct brain network in rest. A more secure and spatially extended connectivity of the default mode network was observed following MA and EA, and TEAS specifically increased the functional connectivity in the sensorimotor network. The present study suggested that different brain mechanisms might be recruited in different acupuncture modalities. In addition, the findings from our work could provide methodological information for further research into the mechanism of acupuncture. © 2013 Jiang et al.


Jiang Y.,Peking University | Jiang Y.,Key Laboratory of Neuroscience | Liu J.,Peking University | Liu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Brain activities in response to acupuncture have been investigated in multiple studies; however, the neuromechanisms of low- and high-frequency transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) analgesia are unclear. This work aimed to investigate how brain activity and the analgesic effect changed across 30-min low- versus high-frequency TEAS. Forty-six subjects received a 30-min 2, 100-Hz TEAS or mock TEAS (MTEAS) treatment on both behavior test and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan days. On the behavior test day, the pain thresholds and pain-related negative emotional feeling ratings were tested five times - at 4.5. min before treatment, at 10, 20, and 30. min during treatment and 4.5. min after the treatment. On the fMRI scan day, to match the time-points in the behavioral testing session, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) signals were collected and incorporated with five independent runs before, during and after the treatment, each lasting 4.5. min. The analgesic effect was observed in both the TEAS groups; the analgesic affect was not found in the MTEAS group. The effect started at 20. min during the treatment and was maintained until the after-treatment states. In both TEAS groups, the regional CBF revealed a trend of early activation with later inhibition; also, a positive correlation between analgesia and the regional CBF change was observed in the anterior insula in the early stage, whereas a negative relationship was found in the parahippocampal gyrus in the later stage. The TEAS analgesia was specifically associated with the default mode network and other cortical regions in the 2-Hz TEAS group, ventral striatum and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the 100-Hz TEAS group, respectively. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of low- and high-frequency TEAS analgesia are distinct and partially overlapped, and they verify the treatment time as a notable factor for acupuncture studies. © 2014 IBRO.


Shen F.,Peking University | Shen F.,Key Laboratory of Neuroscience | Wang N.,Peking University | Wang N.,Key Laboratory of Neuroscience | And 6 more authors.
Behavioral Neuroscience | Year: 2014

There is evidence that the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling pathway in the basal lateral amygdala and hippocampus plays a key role in memory processing, but it is not known if this NO signaling pathway in the nucleus accumbens (Gomes et al., 2006), a known pivotal region in reward memory, is essential for drug-associated reward memory. We therefore investigated the effect of the NO/sGC/PKG signaling pathway in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Results showed that a preconditioning microinjection of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) into the NAc shell, but not into the core, significantly blocked the acquisition of morphine CPP. The blockage effect of L-NAME on the acquisition of CPP was imitated by the neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole, 3-bromo-, sodium salt (7-NI), the sGC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), and the PKG inhibitor Rp-8Br-PET-cGMPS. The 7-NI- or ODQ-induced effect was reversed by premicroinjection of the sGC activator YC-1 or the PKG activator 8-Br-cGMP in the NAc shell. However, microinfusion of 7-NI, ODQ, or Rp-8Br-PET-cGMPS into the NAc shell or the core had no effect on the expression of morphine CPP. These findings indicate that the NO/sGC/PKG signaling pathway in the NAc shell is critical for the acquisition of morphine-induced place preference, whereas the same signaling pathway in the NAc shell or core is not involved in the retrieval of morphine-induced place preference. © 2014 American Psychological Association.


Wang K.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang K.,National Engineering Research Center for Biochip at Shanghai | Xiang X.-H.,Peking University | Xiang X.-H.,Key Laboratory of Neuroscience | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2010

It is generally believed that temporary moderate stress to a living organism has protective and adaptive effects, but little is known about the responses of CNS to the moderate stresses at molecular level. This study aims to investigate the gene expression changes induced by moderate stress in CNS stress- and nociception-related regions of rats. Moderate restraint was applied to rats for 50 min and cDNA microarrays were used to detect the differential gene expression in different CNS regions. Transcriptome profiling analysis showed that at acute stage stress-related genes were up-regulated in arcuate nucleus; fight-or-flight behavior-related genes were up-regulated in periaqueductal gray, while nitric oxide and GABA signal transmission-related genes were up-regulated in spinal dorsal horn. In addition, immune-related genes were broadly regulated, especially at the late stage. These results suggested that specific genes of certain gene ontology categories were spatiotemporally regulated in specific CNS regions related to relevant functions under moderate external stimuli at acute stage, while immune response was broadly regulated at the late stage. The co-regulated genes among the three different CNS regions may play general roles in CNS when exposed to moderate stress. Furthermore, these results will help to elucidate the physiological processes involved in moderate stress in CNS. © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry.

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