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Zhang P.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zhang P.,Key Laboratory of Neurological Diseases | Tian B.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Tian B.,Key Laboratory of Neurological Diseases
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2014

Metabolic syndrome is becoming commoner due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. Generally speaking, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone without metabolic syndrome. Increasing oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome and Parkinson's disease is mentioned in the comprehensive articles; however, the system review about clear relation between metabolic syndrome and Parkinson's disease is deficient. In this review, we will focus on the analysis that the metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease and the preventions that reduce the incident of Parkinson's disease by regulating the oxidative stress. © 2014 Pei Zhang and Bo Tian. Source

Shu Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Shu Y.,Jiangsu University | Ming J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zhang P.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Recent studies have linked certain single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene with Parkinson's disease (PD). Among the mutations, LRRK2 c.4883G>C (R1628P) variant was identified to have a significant aociation with the risk of PD in ethnic Han-Chinese populations. But the molecular pathological mechanisms of R1628P mutation in PD is still unknown. Principle Findings Unlike other LRRK2 mutants in the Roc-COR-Kinase domain, the R1628P mutation didn't alter the LRRK2 kinase activity and promote neuronal death directly. LRRK2 R1628P mutation increased the binding affinity of LRRK2 with Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Interestingly, R1628P mutation turned its adjacent amino acid residue S1627 on LRRK2 protein to a novel phosphorylation site of Cdk5, which could be defined as a typical type II (+) phosphorylation- related single nucleotide polymorphism. Importantly, we showed that the phosphorylation of S1627 by Cdk5 could activate the LRRK2 kinase, and neurons ectopically expreing R1628P displayed a higher sensitivity to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, a bioactive metabolite of environmental toxin MPTP, in a Cdk5-dependent manner. Conclusion Our data indicate that Parkinson-related LRRK2 mutation R1628P leads to Cdk5 phosphorylation of LRRK2 at S1627, which would upregulate the kinase activity of LRRK2 and consequently cause neuronal death. © 2016 Shuet al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Xu S.-B.,Key Laboratory of Neurological Diseases | Huang B.,Key Laboratory of Neurological Diseases | Zhang C.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Neurological Diseases | Du P.,Fudan University | And 7 more authors.
CMAJ | Year: 2013

Background: The traditional Chinese theory of acupuncture emphasizes that the intensity of acupuncture must reach a threshold to generate de qi, which is necessary to achieve the best therapeutic effect. De qi is an internal compound sensation of soreness, tingling, fullness, aching, cool, warmth and heaviness, and a radiating sensation at and around the acupoints. However, the notion that de qi must be achieved for maximum benefit has not been confirmed by modern scientific evidence. Methods: We performed a prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial involving patients with Bell palsy. Patients were randomly assigned to the de qi (n = 167) or control (n = 171) group. Both groups received acupuncture: in the de qi group, the needles were manipulated manually until de qi was reached, whereas in the control group, the needles were inserted without any manipulation. All patients received prednisone as a basic treatment. The primary outcome was facial nerve function at month 6. We also assessed disability and quality of life 6 months after randomization. Results: After 6 months, patients in the de qi group had better facial function (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-7.78), better disability assessment (differences of least squares means 9.80, 95% CI 6.29-13.30) and better quality of life (differences of least squares means 29.86, 95% CI 22.33-37.38). Logistic regression analysis showed a positive effect of the de qi score on facial-nerve function (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.09). Interpretation: Among patients with Bell palsy, acupuncture with strong stimulation that elicited de qi had a greater therapeutic effect, and stronger intensity of de qi was associated with the better therapeutic effects. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT00685789. © 2013 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors. Source

Wen Z.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Wen Z.,Key Laboratory of Neurological Diseases | Shu Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Shu Y.,Key Laboratory of Neurological Diseases | And 13 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2014

Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a major negative mediator of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The downregulation of RKIP is correlated with many cancers, but the mechanisms that underlie this downregulation and its roles in the nervous system remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RKIP is a substrate of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in neurons and that the phosphorylation of RKIP at T42 causes the release of Raf-1. Moreover, T42 phosphorylation promotes the exposure and recognition of the target motif "KLYEQ" in the C-terminus of RKIP by chaperone Hsc70 and the subsequent degradation of RKIP via chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Furthermore, in the brain sample of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride-induced and transgenic PD models, we demonstrate that CDK5-mediated phosphorylation and autophagy of RKIP are involved in the overactivation of the ERK/MAPK cascade, leading to S-phase reentry and neuronal loss. These findings provide evidence for the role of the CDK5/RKIP/ERK pathway in PD pathogenesis and suggest that this pathway may be a suitable therapeutic target in PD. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Liu R.-L.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Liu R.-L.,Xinxiang Medical University | Xiong Q.-J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Shu Q.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | And 10 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2012

Hyperoside is a flavonoid compound and widely used in clinic to relieve pain and improve cardiovascular functions. However, the effects of hyperoside on ischemic neurons and the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used an in vitro ischemic model of oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD-R) to investigate the protective effects of hyperoside on ischemic neuron injury and further explore the possible related mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that hyperoside protected cultured cortical neurons from OGD-R injury, it also relieved glutamate-induced neuronal injury and NMDA-induced [Ca2]i elevation. As for the mechanisms, hyperoside firstly attenuated the phosphorylation of CaMKII caused by OGD-R lesions. Meanwhile, hyperoside lessened iNOS expression induced by OGD-R via inhibition of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, ameliorating of ERK, JNK and Bcl-2 family-related apoptotic signaling pathways were also involved in the neuroprotection of hyperoside. Taken together, these studies revealed that hyperoside had protective effects on neuronal ischemia-reperfusion impairment, which was related to the regulation of nitric oxide signaling pathway. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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