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Zhao Y.,Capital Medical University | Zhao Y.,Beijing Geriatric Medical Research Center | Zhao Y.,Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases of Ministry of Education | Yan Y.,Capital Medical University | And 8 more authors.
Brain Research Bulletin | Year: 2015

Diabetic encephalopathy has recently been recognized late complication of diabetes resulting in progressive cognitive deficits. Emerging evidence has indicated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic eye and kidney as well as non-diabetic neurodegeneration. However, there was little direct evidence for the involvement of ER stress in diabetic encephalopathy up to now. In the present work, we investigated the role of ER stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. Our results have demonstrated the existence of ER stress in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. STZ injection i.p. rapidly induced up-regulation of the ER stress marker, the prosurvival chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), as early as 6-24. h and persisted at least for up to 72. h in the hippocampus of mice, indicating the UPR activation soon after STZ administration. The increased expression of GRP78 in hippocampal cells is to relieve the ER stress. With the development of diabetes, the expression of GRP78 decreases while the expression of UPR-associated proapoptotic transcriptional regulator C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) increases significantly in the hippocampal neurons of diabetic mice from 1 week after STZ administration to 12 weeks/the end of the study. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in the hippocampus of diabetic mice were largely colocalized with NeuN- and CHOP-positive cells, indicating that the up-regulation of CHOP in hippocampal neurons of diabetic mice may promote neuronal apoptosis and account for the damaged learning and memory ability of diabetic mice. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ER stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuronal degeneration and may contribute to cognitive dysfunction of diabetic encephalopathy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Zhao H.,Capital Medical University | Zhao H.,Beijing Geriatric Medical Research Center | Zhao H.,Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases of Ministry of Education | Zhao H.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Diseases | And 29 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2014

The present study was designed to investigate the potential role of miR-23a-3p in experimental brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cerebral ischemia reperfusion was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h in C57/BL6 mice. And miR-23a-3p angomir was transfected to upregulate the miR-23a-3p level. Our results showed that miR-23a-3p levels were transiently increased at 4 h after reperfusion in the peri-infarction area, while markedly increased in the infarction core at reperfusion 4 h and 24 h. Importantly, in vivo study demonstrated that miR-23a-3p angomir treatment through intracerebroventricular injection markedly decreased cerebral infarction volume after MCAO. Simultaneously, miR-23a-3p reduced peroxidative production nitric oxide (NO) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), and increased the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). In vitro study demonstrated that miR-23a-3p decreased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage dose-dependently, and reduced protein levels of activated caspase-3 in neuro-2a cells. In addition, miR-23a-3p reduced H2O2-induced production of NO and 3-NT dose-dependently, and reversed the decreased activity of total SOD and MnSOD in neuro-2a cells. Our study indicated that miR-23a-3p suppressed oxidative stress and lessened cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Zhao H.,Capital Medical University | Zhao H.,Cerebralvascular Diseases Research Laboratory | Zhao H.,Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases of Ministry of Education | Wang R.,Capital Medical University | And 21 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) protects against ischemic brain injury. To date, no study has examined the role of T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) in IPostC-afforded neuroprotection. We explored the molecular mechanism related with TOPK in antioxidant effect of IPostC against ischemia/reperfusion. METHODS - : Focal ischemia was induced in rats by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Reactive oxygen species production in the peri-infarct cortex was detected using dihydroethidium. Malondialdehyde, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and 3-nitrotyrosine, as a marker of protein oxidation, were detected by ELISA. The expression or location of antioxidant proteins and signal molecules TOPK, phosphatase, and tensin homolog, and Akt was analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. RESULTS - : Our results revealed that IPostC relieved transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced oxidative damage by reducing reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and 3-nitrotyrosine accumulation in the peri-infarct cortex and raised levels of antioxidants perioxiredoxin-1, peroxiredoxin-2, and thioredoxin-1. In addition, IPostC increased p-AKT and p-TOPK levels, which colocalized in neural cells. In vitro TOPK knockdown by small interfering RNA decreased the levels of antioxidants peroxiredoxin-1, thioredoxin, and manganese superoxide dismutase activity in PC12 cells. In vivo intracerebroventricular injection of TOPK small interfering RNA reversed IPostC-induced neuroprotection by increasing infarct volume and nitric oxide content and reducing manganese superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, IPostC-evoked Akt activation was blocked by TOPK small interfering RNA in vivo, but the decreased phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog level in ischemia/reperfusion was not influenced by IPostC or by TOPK small interfering RNA treatment. CONCLUSIONS - : Our results suggest that the antioxidative effects of TOPK/Akt might contribute to the neuroprotection of IPostC treatment against transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.. Source

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