Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects

Hangzhou, China

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects

Hangzhou, China
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Bai Y.Y.,Zhejiang University | Bai Y.Y.,Southwest University | Yan R.H.,Southwest University | Ye G.Y.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2010

During 20052008, field studies were conducted at two locations in Chongqing, China, to assess the potential effects of transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab protein on the nontarget ground-dwelling collembolan community in three postharvest seasons. Collembolans in non-Bt and Bt rice fields were sampled with pitfall traps during each of two postharvest seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 and litterbag traps during each of three postharvest seasons of 2005/2006, 2006/2007, and 2007/2008. Ground-dwelling collembolans in rice fields during the postharvest seasons were abundant, whereas community densities varied considerably between the two locations and among the three seasons. A total of 67,310 collembolans, representing three species, Entomobrya griseoolivata, Hypogastrura matura, and Bourletiella christianseni, were captured during the three postharvest seasons. E. griseoolivata was the predominant species, accounting for 87.7% of the total captures, followed by H. matura (10.7%) and B. christianseni (1.6%). In general, there were no significant differences in species compositions and abundances of each species between Bt and non-Bt paddy fields, suggesting no significantly impact of plant residues of Cry1Ab rice on collembolan communities during postharvest seasons. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

Fang H.,Zhejiang University | Fang H.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects | Zhou W.,Zhejiang University | Cao Z.,Zhejiang University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2012

Combined pollution of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and cadmium (Cd) in agricultural soils is of great concern because they present serious risk to food security and human health. In order to develop a cost-effective and safe method for the removal of DDTs and Cd in soil, combined remediation of DDTs and Cd in soil by Sphingobacterium sp. D-6 and the hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance was investigated. After treatment for 210 days, the degradation half-lives of DDTs in soils treated by strain D-6 decreased by 8.1% to 68.0% compared with those in the controls. The inoculation of strain D-6 into soil decreased the uptake of DDTs by pak choi and S. alfredii. The shoots/roots ratios of S. alfredii for the Cd accumulation ranged from 12.32 to 21.75. The Cd concentration in soil decreased to 65.8%-71.8% for S. alfredii treatment and 14.1%-58.2% for S. alfredii and strain D-6 combined treatment, respectively, compared with that in the control. The population size of the DDTs-degrading strain, Simpson index (1/D) and soil respiratory rate decreased in the early stage of treatment and then gradually increased, ultimately recovering to or exceeding the initial level. The results indicated that synchronous incorporation of strain D-6 and S. alfredii into soil was found to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhance the degradation of DDTs in soil and the hyperaccumulation of Cd in S. alfredii. It was concluded that strain D-6 and S. alfredii could be used successfully to control DDTs and Cd in contaminated soil. © 2012 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Fang H.,Zhejiang University | Fang H.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects | Dong B.,Zhejiang University | Dong B.,Agricultural Service Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2012

With the development of transgenic crops, there is an increasing concern about the possible adverse effects of their vegetation and residues on soil environmental quality. This study was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of the vegetation of transgenic Bt rice lines Huachi B6 (HC) and TT51 (TT) followed by the return of their straw to the soil on soil enzymes (catalase, urease, neutral phosphatase and invertase), anaerobic respiration activity, microbial utilization of carbon substrates and community structure, under field conditions. The results indicated that the vegetation of the two transgenic rice lines (HC and TT) and return of their straw had few adverse effects on soil enzymes and anaerobic respiration activity compared to their parent and distant parent, although some transient differences were observed. The vegetation and subsequent straw amendment of Bt rice HC and TT did not appear to have a harmful effect on the richness, evenness and community structure of soil microorganisms. No different pattern of impact due to plant species was found between HC and TT. It could be concluded that the vegetation of transgenic Bt rice lines and the return of their straw as organic fertilizer may not alter soil microbe-mediated functions. © 2012 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Liu K.,Zhejiang University | Liu K.,Anshun University | Pan X.,Zhejiang University | Han Y.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

Both sorption by soil and uptake by organisms of ionizable organic pollutants depend on their speciation (i.e., neutral and ionized forms); thus, the bioavailability of ionizable organic pollutants is more complicated than that of neutral organic pollutants in soil. The toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) was estimated using Soxhlet extracted concentrations (CSE), an excess of water extracted concentrations (CEEW), ex situ pore water concentrations (CEPW) and in situ pore water concentrations (CIPW) in different soils. The results indicated that the median lethal concentrations (LC50) calculated from CSE ranged from 2.32 to 34.0mgkg-1 in the five tested soils and the coefficient of variation (CV) of LC50s was 69.8%. When the LC50 was calculated from the CEEW, CEPW and CIPW, the variability of the LC50 gradually became smaller in these soils, with the CVs of LC50s being 58.1%, 50.6% and 38.6% (for CEEW, CEPW and CIPW, respectively). However, the LC50 based on CIPW in strongly acidic soil (where carbendazim partially exists as ionized form) was significantly lower than in other soils, and the values of the LC50 calculated from the in situ pore water concentrations were approximately equal. The results indicated that the in situ pore water concentration could be used to estimate the toxicity of carbendazim in different soils especially in those soils where carbendazim exists in the neutral form. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Yan H.,Zhejiang University | Wang D.,Zhejiang University | Dong B.,Zhejiang University | Tang F.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

The dissipation of carbendazim and chloramphenicol alone and in combination and their effects on soil fungal:bacterial ratios and soil enzyme activities were investigated. The results revealed that carbendazim dissipation was little affected by chloramphenicol, whereas chloramphenicol dissipation was found to be retarded significantly by the presence of carbendazim. The inhibitory effect of carbendazim on the fungal:bacterial ratios was increased by the presence of chloramphenicol, and the inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on neutral phosphatase was increased by the presence of carbendazim. Carbendazim increased soil catalase and urease activities, but this increase was partially diminished by the presence of chloramphenicol. Little interaction was observed between carbendazim and chloramphenicol with regard to their influence on soil invertase. The results obtained in this study suggest that combinations of fungicides and antibiotics may alter the compounds' individual behaviors in soil and their effects on soil enzymes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Xu Q.-F.,Zhejiang University | Cheng W.-S.,Zhejiang University | Li S.-S.,Zhejiang University | Li W.,Zhejiang University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Identification of hypersensitive cell death (HCD) regulators is essential to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying plant disease resistance. In this study, combined proteomic and RNA interfering (RNAi) analyses were employed to identify genes required for the HCD conferred by the tomato resistance gene Cf-4 and the Cladosporium fulvum avirulence gene Avr4. Forty-nine proteins differentially expressed in the tomato seedlings mounting and those not mounting Cf-4/Avr4-dependent HCD were identified through proteomic analysis. Among them were a variety of defence-related proteins including a cysteine protease, Pip1, an operative target of another C. fulvum effector, Avr2. Additionally, glutathione-mediated antioxidation is a major response to Cf-4/Avr4-dependent HCD. Functional analysis through tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing and transient RNAi assays of the chosen 16 differentially expressed proteins revealed that seven genes, which encode Pip1 homologue NbPip1, a SIPK type MAP kinase Nbf4, an asparagine synthetase NbAsn, a trypsin inhibitor LeMir-like protein NbMir, a small GTP-binding protein, a late embryogenesis-like protein, and an ASR4-like protein, were required for Cf-4/Avr4-dependent HCD. Furthermore, the former four genes were essential for Cf-9/Avr9-dependent HCD; NbPip1, NbAsn, and NbMir, but not Nbf4, affected a nonadaptive bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae-induced HCD in Nicotiana benthamiana. These data demonstrate that Pip1 and LeMir may play a general role in HCD and plant immunity and that the application of combined proteomic and RNA interfering analyses is an efficient strategy to identify genes required for HCD, disease resistance, and probably other biological processes in plants. © 2012 The Author.

Zhang Q.,Zhejiang University | Zhang Q.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects | Wang B.,Zhejiang University | Wang B.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

To overcome the poor survival and low activity of the bacteria used for bioremediation, a plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation method was investigated, which could result in a persistent capacity for the degradation of chlorpyrifos in soil. The results indicate that the pDOC plasmid could transfer into soil bacteria, including members of the Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus genera. The soil bacteria acquired the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos within 5 days of the transfer of pDOC. The efficiency of the pDOC transfer in the soil, as measured by the chlorpyrifos degradation efficiency and the most probable number (MPN) of chlorpyrifos degraders, was influenced by the soil temperature, moisture level and type. The best performance for the transfer of pDOC was observed under conditions of 30 °C and 60% water-holding capacity (WHC). The results presented in this paper show that the transfer of pDOC can enhance the degradation of chlorpyrifos in various soils, although the degradation efficiency did vary with the soil type. It may be concluded that the introduction of plasmids encoding enzymes that can degrade xenobiotics or donor strains harboring these plasmids is an alternative approach in bioaugmentation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Liu K.,Zhejiang University | Cao Z.,Zhejiang University | Pan X.,Zhejiang University | Yu Y.,Zhejiang University | Yu Y.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

The phytotoxicity of an herbicide in soil is typically dependent on the soil characteristics. To obtain a comparable value of the concentration that inhibits growth by 50% (IC50), 0.01M CaCl2, excess pore water (EPW) and in situ pore water (IPW) were used to extract the bioavailable fraction of nicosulfuron from five different soils to estimate the nicosulfuron phytotoxicity to corn (Zea mays L.). The results indicated that the phytotoxicity of nicosulfuron in soils to corn depended on the soil type, and the IC50 values calculated based on the amended concentration of nicosulfuron ranged from 0.77 to 9.77mg/kg among the five tested soils. The range of variation in IC50 values for nicosulfuron was smaller when the concentrations of nicosulfuron extracted with 0.01M CaCl2 and EPW were used instead of the amended concentration. No significant difference was observed among the IC50 values calculated from the IPW concentrations of nicosulfuron in the five tested soils, suggesting that the concentration of nicosulfuron in IPW could be used to estimate the phytotoxicity of residual nicosulfuron in soils. © 2012 SETAC.

Yin Y.,Zhejiang University | Liu X.,Zhejiang University | Shi Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ma Z.,Zhejiang University | Ma Z.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2010

The benzimidazole fungicide carbendazim (CBD) has been used extensively in China for the control of sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) of rapeseed caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, 245 isolates of S. sclerotiorum were examined for their sensitivities to CBD, and two resistance levels were identified. Among 245 isolates, 78 isolates were highly resistant to CBD. These CBD highly resistant (CBD-HR) isolates were more sensitive to the phenylcarbamate fungicide diethofencarb than CBD sensitive (CBD-S) isolates. One isolate was medium resistant to CBD, and insensitive to diethofencarb. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed the CBD-HR isolates had different genetic backgrounds. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene showed that all CBD-HR isolates had a point mutation at the codon 198, causing a substitution of glutamic acid to alanine. The CBD medium resistant (CBD-MR) isolate had a point mutation at the codon 200 causing a substitution of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Based on these point mutations, a multiplex allele-specific PCR method was developed to detect two different point mutations simultaneously in single PCR amplification. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Fang H.,Zhejiang University | Fang H.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects | Tang F.F.,Zhejiang University | Zhou W.,Zhejiang University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2012

The effects of repeated applications of the fungicide triadimefon in agricultural soil on the microbial functional diversity of the soil and on the persistence of the fungicide in the soil were investigated under laboratory conditions. The degradation half-lives of triadimefon at the recommended dosage, simulated by a first-order kinetic model, were 23.90, 22.95, and 21.52 days for the first, second, and third applications, respectively. Throughout this study, no significant inhibition of the Shannon-Wiener index (H′) was observed. However, the Simpson index (1/D) and the McIntosh index (U) were obviously reduced (p ≤ 0.05) during the initial 3 days after the first triadimefon application and thereafter, gradually recovered to or exceeded the level of the control soil. A similar trend in variation but with a faster recovery in the 1/D and U was observed after the second and third triadimefon applications, respectively. Taken together, the above results indicate that the repeated application of triadimefon enhanced the degradation rate of the fungicide and the recovery rate of the soil microbial functional diversity. It is concluded that repeated triadimefon applications in soil have a transient or temporary inhibitory effect on soil microbial communities. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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