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Tang H.,Harbin Medical University | Pan C.-S.,Peking University | Pan C.-S.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Pan C.-S.,Key Laboratory of Stasis and Phlegm | And 17 more authors.
Microcirculation | Year: 2014

Objective: TSI is a new drug derived from Chinese medicine for treatment of ischemic stroke in China. The aim of this study was to verify the therapeutic effect of TSI in a rat model of MCAO, and further explore the mechanism for its effect. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to right MCAO for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion. TSI (1.67 mg/kg) was administrated before reperfusion via femoral vein injection. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the fluorescence intensity of DHR 123 in, leukocyte adhesion to and albumin leakage from the cerebral venules were observed. Neurological scores, TTC staining, brain water content, Nissl staining, TUNEL staining, and MDA content were assessed. Bcl-2/Bax, cleaved caspase-3, NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox/p67phox/gp91phox, and AMPK/Akt/PKC were analyzed by Western blot. Results: TSI attenuated I/R-induced microcirculatory disturbance and neuron damage, activated AMPK, inhibited NADPH oxidase subunits membrane translocation, suppressed Akt phosphorylation, and PKC translocation. Conclusions: TSI attenuates I/R-induced brain injury in rats, supporting its clinic use for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The role of TSI may benefit from its antioxidant activity, which is most likely implemented via inactivation of NADPH oxidase through a signaling pathway implicating AMPK/Akt/PKC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Liu D.-Y.,Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Liu D.-Y.,Peking University | Pan C.-S.,Peking University | Liu Y.-Y.,Peking University | And 15 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Huang Qi Jian Zhong Pellet (HQJZ) is a famous Chinese medicine formula for treatment of various gastrointestinal tract diseases. This study investigated the role of HQJZ in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis and its underlying mechanism. Colonic mucosal injury was induced by TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. In the HQJZ treatment group, HQJZ was administered (2 g/kg) for 14 days starting from day 1 after TNBS infusion. Colonic mucosal injury occurred obviously 1 day after TNBS challenge and did not recover distinctively until day 15, including an increase in macro- and microscopic scores, a colonic weight index, a decrease in colonic length, a number of functional capillaries, and blood flow. Inverted intravital microscopy and ELISA showed colonic microcirculatory disturbances and inflammatory responses after TNBS stimulation, respectively. TNBS decreased occludin, RhoA, and ROCK-I, while increasing Rac-1, PAK-1, and phosphorylated myosin light chain. In addition, ATP content and ATP5D expression in colonic mucosa decreased after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with HQJZ significantly attenuated all of the alterations evoked by TNBS, promoting the recovery of colonic injury. The present study demonstrated HQJZ as a multitargeting management for colonic mucosal injury, which set in motion mechanisms involving improvement of energy metabolism. © 2013 Duan-Yong Liu et al.


Yang X.-Y.,Peking University | He K.,Peking University | Pan C.-S.,Peking University | Li Q.,Peking University | And 16 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

The present study aimed to detect the role of 3, 4-dihydroxyl-phenyl lactic acid (DLA) during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced myocardial injury with emphasis on the underlying mechanism of DLA antioxidant. Male Spragu-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to left descending artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Treatment with DLA ameliorated myocardial structure and function disorder, blunted the impairment of Complex I activity and mitochondrial function after I/R. The results of 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis revealed that DLA prevented the decrease in NDUFA10 expression, one of the subunits of Complex I. To find the target of DLA, the binding affinity of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to DLA and DLA derivatives with replaced two phenolic hydroxyls was detected using surface plasmon resonance and bilayer interferometry. The results showed that DLA could activate SIRT1 after I/R probably by binding to this protein, depending on phenolic hydroxyl. Moreover, the importance of SIRT1 to DLA effectiveness was confirmed through siRNA transfection in vitro. These results demonstrated that DLA was able to prevent I/R induced decrease in NDUFA10 expression, improve Complex I activity and mitochondrial function, eventually attenuate cardiac structure and function injury after I/R, which was possibly related to its ability of binding to and activating SIRT1.


Wei X.-H.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Liu Y.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Li Q.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Yan L.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | And 13 more authors.
Microcirculation | Year: 2013

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate whether CP was beneficial in alleviating myocardial fibrosis following I/R injury. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 minutes occlusion of the LADCA, followed by reperfusion. CP (0.4 or 0.8 g/kg) was daily administered starting from three hour after reperfusion until day 6. Coronary venular diameter, RBC velocity, albumin leakage, MBF, heart function, myocardial infarction and fibrosis size, myocardium ultrastructure, MPO activity, and MDA level were evaluated. The expression of MCP-1, RP S19, TGF-β1, P-Smad3, Smad4, MMP-9 and α-SMA, and the infiltration of leukocytes were examined. Results: CP post-treatment ameliorated I/R-induced myocardial RBC velocity reduction, MBF decrease, cardiac dysfunction, and albumin leakage increase. Moreover, myocardial infarction and fibrosis size, MPO activity, MDA level, the expression of RP S19, TGF-β1, P-Smad3, Smad4, MMP-9 and α-SMA, the number of CD68-positive cells increased significantly after I/R, and myocardium collagen deposition was observed on day 6 after reperfusion. All the alterations after I/R were significantly ameliorated by CP. Conclusions: Post-treatment with CP ameliorates I/R-induced myocardial fibrosis, suggesting that CP may be applied as an option for preventing cardiac remodeling after I/R injury. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Li A.,Capital Medical University | Dong L.,Capital Medical University | Duan M.-L.,Capital Medical University | Sun K.,Peking University | And 13 more authors.
Microcirculation | Year: 2013

Objective: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Emodin is a major ingredient of Rheum Palmatum, a Chinese herb that is widely used in China for treatment of endotoxemia-related diseases. This study intended to examine the effect of Emodin on LPS-induced rat mesenteric microcirculatory disturbance and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The male Wistar rats received LPS (5 mg/kg/hr) for 90 min, with or without administration of Emodin (10 mg/kg/hr) by enema 30 min before (pre-treatment) or after (post-treatment) LPS infusion, and the dynamics of mesenteric microcirculation were determined by inverted intravital microscopy. Expression of adhesion molecules and TLR4, NF-κB p65, ICAM-1, MPO, and AP-1 in mesentery tissue was evaluated by flow cytometry and Western-blot, respectively. Results: Pre or post-treatment with Emodin significantly ameliorated LPS-induced leukocyte emigration, reactive oxygen species production and albumin leakage, and the expression of TLR4, NF-κB p65, ICAM-1, MPO and AP-1 in mesentery. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the beneficial role of Emodin in attenuating the LPS-induced microcirculatory disturbance, and support the use of Emodin for patients with endotoxemia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Yang N.,Peking University | Yang N.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Liu Y.-Y.,Peking University | Liu Y.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | And 14 more authors.
Microcirculation | Year: 2014

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the protective effect of AP on LPS-induced PMD and ALI. Methods: Male SD rats were continuously infused with LPS (5 mg/kg/h) for one hour to induce PMD and ALI. AP was administrated orally one hour before LPS exposure. Arterial blood pressure and HR were monitored. Blood gas analysis, histological observation, cytokines in plasma, leukocyte recruitment, pulmonary oxidative stress, microvessel permeability, edema, and related proteins were evaluated six hours after LPS challenge. Results: Rats receiving LPS exhibited significant alterations, including hypotension, tachycardia, increase in cytokines, neutrophil adhesion and infiltration, oxidative stress, and microvessel hyperpermeability, resulting in pulmonary injury and dysfunction. AP (0.18 g/kg or 1.8 g/kg) improved rat survival rate, and significantly attenuated all aforementioned insults, and inhibited LPS-induced increase in adhesion molecules, up-regulation of Cav-1 and Src kinase and NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox and p67phox) membrane translocation in lung tissue, and preserved JAM-1 and claudin-5. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the protective effect of AP on LPS-induced PMD and ALI, suggesting the potential of AP as a prophylactic strategy for LPS-induced ALI. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Li C.,Peking University | Li C.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Li Q.,Peking University | Li Q.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | And 21 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2014

Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a clinical problem occurred for diverse causes with high mortality. Prophylaxis and treatment of intestinal I/R remains a challenge for clinicians. The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of Notoginsenoside R1 (R1), a major component form of Panax notoginseng, in management of intestinal I/R injury. Intestinal I/R was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min or 3 days. R1 (10 mg·kg-1·h-1) was administered either 20 min before ischemia or 20 min after reperfusion. Intestinal microcirculation was evaluated by intravital microscopy over 60 min reperfusion. Sixty minutes or 3 days after reperfusion, rats were killed for histological examination of the jejunum tissue and immunohistochemical localization of myeloperoxidase and CD68. ATP, ADP, and AMP content in jejunum tissue was assessed by ELISA. Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and expression of ATP5D and tight junction proteins were determined by Western blotting. The results demonstrated that R1 is capable of attenuating intestinal I/R-induced microvascular hyperpermeability, inflammatory cytokine production, NF-κB activation, and loss of tight junction proteins, as well as improving energy metabolism during I/R. The results of the present study suggest R1 as an option in protecting against intestinal I/R injury. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


Tu L.,Peking University | Pan C.-S.,Peking University | Pan C.-S.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Pan C.-S.,Key Laboratory of Stasis and Phlegm | And 26 more authors.
Microcirculation | Year: 2013

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the protective potential of AS-IV against ischemia and I/R-induced myocardial damage, with focusing on possible involvement of energy metabolism modulation in its action and the time phase in which it takes effect. Methods: SD rats were subjected to 30 minutes LADCA occlusion, followed by reperfusion. MBF, myocardial infarct size, and cardiac function were evaluated. Myocardial structure and myocardial apoptosis were assessed by double immunofluorescence staining of F-actin and TUNEL. Content of ATP, ADP, and AMP in myocardium, cTnI level, expression of ATP5D, P-MLC2, and apoptosis-related molecules were determined. Results: Pretreatment with AS-IV suppressed MBF decrease, myocardial cell apoptosis, and myocardial infarction induced by I/R. Moreover, ischemia and I/R both caused cardiac malfunction, decrease in the ratio of ATP/ADP and ATP/AMP, accompanying with reduction of ATP 5D protein and mRNA, and increase in P-MLC2 and serum cTnI, all of which were significantly alleviated by pretreatment with AS-IV, even early in ischemia phase for the insults that were implicated in energy metabolism. Conclusions: AS-IV prevents I/R-induced cardiac malfunction, maintains the integrity of myocardial structure through regulating energy metabolism. The beneficial effect of AS-IV on energy metabolism initiates during the phase of ischemia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Yang X.-Y.,Peking University | Zhao N.,Peking University | Liu Y.-Y.,Peking University | Hu B.-H.,Peking University | And 7 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Cardiotonic pill (CP) is a compound Chinese medicine currently used in China for treatment of ischemic angina pectoris. Our previous results indicated that a single dosing of CP pretreatment at 0.8 g/kg attenuates ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R-) induced myocardial injury and cardiac microcirculatory disturbance. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of CP at low dosage in a multiple dosing manner and to uncover the mechanism of antioxidative activity of CP. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending artery occlusion for 30 min followed by 60 min reperfusion. CP was administrated daily by gavage for six days at 0.1, 0.4, and 0.8 g/kg/day before I/R. Results showed that multiple dosing of CP at three doses significantly reduced I/R-induced myocardial injury, microcirculatory disturbance, and oxidative stress. CP dramatically inhibited I/R-induced nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit gp91phox expression and p67phox and p47phox translocation from cytosol to cell membrane. Translocation of cytosolic subunits to membrane is required for the activation of NADPH oxidase. These data suggested that multiple dosing of CP at doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 g/kg/day reduced I/R-induced rat myocardial injury and microcirculatory disturbance, which was mediated by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation. © 2013 Xiao-Yuan Yang et al.

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