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Han F.,Chongqing Medical University | Han F.,Key Laboratory of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation | Liu W.,Chongqing Medical University | Liu W.,Key Laboratory of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation | And 17 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2015

Although members of SOX family have been well documented for their essential roles in embryonic development, cell proliferation and disease, the functional role and molecular mechanism of SOX30 in cancer are largely unexplored. Here, we first identified SRY-box containing gene 30 (SOX30) as a novel preferentially methylated gene using genome-wide methylation screening. SOX30 hypermethylation was detected in 100% of lung cancer cell lines (9/9) and 70.83% (85/120) of primary lung tumor tissues compared with none (0/20) of normal and 8.0% (2/25) of peri-tumoral lung tissues (P<0.01). SOX30 was expressed in normal and peri-tumoral lung tissues in which SOX30 was unmethylated, but was silenced or downregulated in lung cancer cell lines and primary lung tumor tissues harboring a hypermethylated SOX30. De-methylation experiments further confirmed that silence of SOX30 was regulated by its hypermethylation. Ectopic expression of SOX30 induces cancer cell apoptosis with inhibiting proliferation in vitro and represses tumor formation in vivo, whereas knockdown of SOX30 demonstrates a reversed effect both in vitro and in vivo. At the molecular level, the antitumorigenic effect of SOX30 is mediated by directly binding to CACTTTG (+115 to +121) of p53 promoter region and activating p53 transcription, suggesting that SOX30 is a novel transcriptional activating factor of p53. Indeed, blockade of p53 attenuates the tumor inhibition of SOX30. Overall, these findings demonstrate that SOX30 is a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor acting through direct regulation of p53 transcription and expression. This study provides novel insights on the mechanism of tumorigenesis in lung cancer. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Dong Y.,Chongqing Medical University | Dong Y.,Key Laboratory of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation | Li J.,Chongqing Medical University | Han F.,Chongqing Medical University | And 9 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2015

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in females and is the leading cause of death among gynaecological cancers in women worldwide. In the present study, we identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as a differentially expressed gene between cancerous and non-cancerous ovarian tissues. IGF2 was frequently increased in the human ovarian cancers when compared to the frequency in the non-cancerous ovarian tissues both at the mRNA (30/35) and protein level (61/72). The mean level of IGF2 in the tumor tissues was markedly higher than that in the non-cancerous tissues (nearly 3-fold change) (P=0.000). There was a significant correlation of IGF2 expression with histological grade (P=0.047). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the ovarian cancer patients with high IGF2 expression showed a poorer prognosis both in regards to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (n=1,648, P=0.000). Further analysis revealed that high expression of IGF2 was an unfavorable factor for the prognosis of the ovarian cancer patients at clinical stage I + II, stage III, histological grade 2, grade 3 or those treated with chemotherapy containing platin and Taxol. Our data provide evidence that IGF2 expression is frequently increased in ovarian cancer tissues, and high expression of IGF2 may be a significant prognostic factor for poor survival in ovarian cancer patients. © 2015, Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Liu W.-B.,Chongqing Medical University | Liu W.-B.,Key Laboratory of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation | Han F.,Chongqing Medical University | Han F.,Key Laboratory of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation | And 16 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Using genome-wide methylation screening, we found Aristaless-like homeobox-4 (ALX4) preferentially methylated in lung cancer. ALX4 is a putative transcription factor that belongs to the family of paired-class homeoproteins involved in epithelial development. However, the role of ALX4 in tumorigenesis remains largely unclear. Here, we analyzed its epigenetic regulation, biological functions and related molecular mechanisms in lung cancer. CpG island methylation and expression of ALX4 were evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), bisulfite genomic sequencing, reverse-transcription PCR and Western blotting. ALX4 functions were determined by cell viability, colony formation, flow cytometry and in vivo tumorigenicity assays. ALX4 hypermethylation was detected in 55% (54/98) of primary lung cancers compared to none (0/20) of the normal lung tissue samples tested (p < 0.01). ALX4 was readily expressed in normal lung tissues with an unmethylated status, but downregulated or silenced in 90% (9/10) of lung cancer cell lines with a hypermethylation status. Demethylation experiments further confirmed that loss of ALX4 expression was regulated by CpG island hypermethylation. Re-expression of ALX4 in lung cancer cell lines suppressed cell viability, colony formation and migration, whereas it induced apoptosis and G1/S arrest and restrained the tumorigenicity in nude mice. These effects were associated with upregulation of proapoptotic proteins caspase-7, -8 and -9, and downregulation of Bcl-2. On the other hand, knockdown of ALX4 expression by siRNA increased cell viability and proliferation, whereas it inhibited apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, our results suggest that ALX4 is a novel putative tumor suppressor with epigenetic silencing in lung carcinogenesis. What's new? ALX4 is a putative transcription factor involved in epithelial development. In this study, the authors examined whether the methylation status and function of ALX4 might play a role in lung cancer. They found that ALX4 was preferentially methylated in lung cancer, via CpG-island hypermethylation. This, in turn resulted in a loss of ALX4 expression. When ALX4 was restored, it induced apoptosis and suppressed tumorigenicity in mice. These findings indicate that ALX4 acts as a novel tumor suppressor in lung cancer, which may aid in early detection and provide a potential therapeutic target. © 2013 UICC. Source

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