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Zhang X.,Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China | Yan H.,Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China | Yuan Y.,Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China | Gao J.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 8 more authors.
Autophagy | Year: 2013

Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) is a complex pathological process. Although autophagy can be evoked by ischemia, its involvement in the reperfusion phase after ischemia and its contribution to the fate of neurons remains largely unknown. In the present investigation, we found that autophagy was activated in the reperfusion phase, as revealed in both mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion and oxygen-glucose deprived cortical neurons in culture. Interestingly, in contrast to that in permanent ischemia, inhibition of autophagy (by 3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1, Atg7 knockdown or in atg5-/- MEF cells) in the reperfusion phase reinforced, rather than reduced, the brain and cell injury induced by I-R. Inhibition of autophagy either with 3-methyladenine or Atg7 knockdown enhanced the I-R-induced release of cytochrome c and the downstream activation of apoptosis. Moreover, MitoTracker Red-labeled neuronal mitochondria increasingly overlapped with GFP-LC3-labeled autophagosomes during reperfusion, suggesting the presence of mitophagy. The mitochondrial clearance in I-R was reversed by 3-methyladenine and Atg7 silencing, further suggesting that mitophagy underlies the neuroprotection by autophagy. In support, administration of the mitophagy inhibitor mdivi-1 in the reperfusion phase aggravated the ischemia-induced neuronal injury both in vivo and in vitro. PARK2 translocated to mitochondria during reperfusion and Park2 knockdown aggravated ischemia-induced neuronal cell death. In conclusion, the results indicated that autophagy plays different roles in cerebral ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. The protective role of autophagy during reperfusion may be attributable to mitophagy-related mitochondrial clearance and inhibition of downstream apoptosis. PARK2 may be involved in the mitophagy process. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. Source


Yan H.,Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China | Zhang X.,Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China | Zhang X.,Zhejiang University | Hu W.,Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China | And 15 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

The role of the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. Here we show that H3R expression is upregulated after I/R in two mouse models. H3R antagonists and H3R knockout attenuate I/R injury, which is reversed by an H3R-selective agonist. Interestingly, H1R and H2R antagonists, a histidine decarboxylase (HDC) inhibitor and HDC knockout all fail to compromise the protection by H3R blockade. H3R blockade inhibits mTOR phosphorylation and reinforces autophagy. The neuroprotection by H3R antagonism is reversed by 3-methyladenine and siRNA for Atg7, and is diminished in Atg5-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, the peptide Tat-H3RCT414-436, which blocks CLIC4 binding with H3Rs, or siRNA for CLIC4, further increases I/R-induced autophagy and protects against I/R injury. Therefore, H3R promotes I/R injury while its antagonism protects against ischaemic injury via histamine-independent mechanisms that involve suppressing H3R/CLIC4 binding-activated autophagy, suggesting that H3R inhibition is a therapeutic target for cerebral ischaemia. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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