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Pun S.H.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Gao Y.M.,Key Laboratory of Medical Instrumentation and Pharmaceutical Technology | Gao Y.M.,Fuzhou University | Mou P.A.,Macau University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC'10 | Year: 2010

Intra-body communication (IBC) is a new, emerging, short-range and human body based communication methodology. It is a technique to network various devices on human body, by utilizing the conducting properties of human tissues. For currently fast developed Body area network(BAN)/Body sensor network(BSN), IBC is believed to have advantages in power consumption, electromagnetic radiation, interference from external electromagnetic noise, security, and restriction in spectrum resource. In this article, the authors propose an improved mathematical model, which includes both electrical properties and proportion of human tissues, for IBC on a human limb. By solving the mathematical model analytically on four-layer system (skin, fat, muscle, and bone) and conducting in-vivo experiment, a comparison has been conducted. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Pun S.H.,University of Macau | Gao Y.M.,Key Laboratory of Medical Instrumentation and Pharmaceutical Technology | Gao Y.M.,Fuzhou University | Mak P.U.,University of Macau | And 4 more authors.
WMSCI 2010 - The 14th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings | Year: 2010

Home health care system and long term physiologic parameters monitoring system are important for elevating the living quality of chronic disease patients and elderly. Elaborating towards a sophisticated and comprehensive home health care system, Intra-Body Communication (IBC) is believed to have advantages in power consumption, electromagnetic radiation, interference from external electromagnetic noise, security, and restriction in spectrum resource. In this article, we start from quasi-static Maxwell's Equation and propose a mathematical model, which includes electrical properties and proportion of human tissues, for IBC on a human limb. By solving the mathematical model analytically and conducting in-vivo experiment, our model has shown adequate agreement with experiments. Source


Pun S.H.,University of Macau | Gao Y.M.,Key Laboratory of Medical Instrumentation and Pharmaceutical Technology | Gao Y.M.,Fuzhou University | Mak P.U.,University of Macau | And 4 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics | Year: 2011

The rapid growth of portable devices is changing the habit of people and improving the living quality of our daily life. The health care devices are emerging sector of portal devices. The increasing connections between devices on or in the body of the users have drawn much attention. Therefore, we proposes to use the Intra-Body Communication (IBC) to act as the network backbone for the health care devices. In this article, we will report a model for IBC, which can calculate the distribution of the transmitting signal within a human limb. The result of the model will compare with an in vivo measurement in order to check the accuracy of the model. Then, the model will be used to estimate the distribution of the transmitting signal for the design of the transmitter and receiver for IBC. ©2011 IEEE. Source


Pun S.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Gao Y.,Key Laboratory of Medical Instrumentation and Pharmaceutical Technology | Gao Y.,Fuzhou University | Mak P.U.,Macau University of Science and Technology | And 7 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing | Year: 2012

The human machine interface (HMI) is a main communication method between human and computer. Through current HMI, a machine receives and accurately responds to the commands instructed by the users. In the next generation of HMI, machines will be required to deal with more challenging problems/decisions (such as affective evaluations, ethical quandaries, and other innovations) in a self-governing manner. Thus, future HMI should be able to provide information about users' emotion to the machine for affective evaluation. In this paper, we focus on the natural connection method that can improve machines in making the acquaintance of the users. However, connecting sensors scattered on the human body poses serious problems concerning comfort and convenience. Therefore, the authors introduce the Intra Body Communication (IBC) for connecting various physiological sensors on the human body such that the physiological information can enrich the capability of the computer in cognition of the user's emotion. In addition, the authors also reported two pilot studies: using the IBC for connecting the physiological sensor on the human body and using the physiological parameters to estimate the degree of fatigue of the user. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Chen X.M.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Pun S.H.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Gao Y.M.,Key Laboratory of Medical Instrumentation and Pharmaceutical Technology | Gao Y.M.,Fuzhou University | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings - IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics: Global Grand Challenge of Health Informatics, BHI 2012 | Year: 2012

Transfer function analysis plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, the voltage distribution based on the quasi-static electric field modeling of human limb for galvanic coupling IBC is analyzed, transfer function of physical channel from 1 Hz to 1MHz is derived and proposed. The attenuation in transfer function shows that lower attenuation is obtained in frequency band from 20 kHz to 1 MHz. Moreover, rectangular pulse is utilized as the input to evaluate this system transfer function. The results in rectangular pulse response indicate separation of distance between transmitter and receiver is the major consideration in designing galvanic coupling IBC system. Finally, this paper reveals bit error rate (BER) under different distances for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and 8PSK modulation schemes. © 2012 IEEE. Source

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