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Yin X.,First Institute of Oceanography | Yin X.,Key Laboratory of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling MASNUM | Qiao F.,First Institute of Oceanography | Qiao F.,Key Laboratory of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling MASNUM | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2010

An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter system is developed to assimilate Argo profiles into the Northwest Pacific MASNUM wave-circulation coupled model, which is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). This model was recoded in FORTRAN-90 style, and some new data types were defined to improve the efficiency of system design and execution. This system is arranged for parallel computing by using UNIX shell scripts: it is easier with single models running separately with the required information exchanged through input/output files. Tests are carried out to check the performance of the system: one for checking the ensemble spread and another for the performance of assimilation of the Argo data in 2005. The first experiment shows that the assimilation system performs well. The comparison with the Satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) shows that modeled SST errors are reduced after assimilation; at the same time, the spatial correlation between the simulated SST anomalies and the satellite data is improved because of Argo assimilation. Furthermore, the temporal evolution/trend of SST becomes much better than those results without data assimilation. The comparison against GTSPP profiles shows that the improvement is not only in the upper layers of ocean, but also in the deeper layers. All these results suggest that this system is potentially capable of reconstructing oceanic data sets that are of high quality and are temporally and spatially continuous. © 2010 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Yin X.,State Oceanic Administration | Yin X.,Key Laboratory of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling MASNUM | Qiao F.,State Oceanic Administration | Qiao F.,Key Laboratory of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling MASNUM | And 6 more authors.
Ocean Dynamics | Year: 2012

The Argo temperature and salinity profiles in 2005-2009 are assimilated into a coastal ocean general circulation model of the Northwest Pacific Ocean using the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF). Three numerical tests, including the control run (CTL) (without data assimilation, which serves as the reference experiment), ensemble free run (EnFR) (without data assimilation), and EAKF experiment (with Argo data assimilation using EAKF), are carried out to examine the performance of this system. Using the restarts of different years as the initial conditions of the ensemble integrations, the ensemble spreads from EnFR and EAKF are all kept at a finite value after a sharp decreasing in the first few months because of the sensitive of the model to the initial conditions, and the reducing of the ensemble spread due to Argo data assimilation is not much. The ensemble samples obtained in this way can well represent the probabilities of the real ocean states, and no ensemble inflation is necessary for this EAKF experiment. Different experiment results are compared with satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data and the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) data. The comparison of SST shows that modeled SST errors are reduced after data assimilation; the error reduction percentage after assimilating the Argo profiles is about 10 % on average. The comparison against the GTSPP profiles, which are independent of the Argo profiles, shows improvements in both temperature and salinity. The comparison results indicated a great error reduction in all vertical layers relative to CTL and the ensemble mean of EnFR; the maximum value for temperature and salinity reaches to 85 % and 80 %, respectively. The standard deviations of sea surface height are employed to examine the simulation ability, and it is shown that the mesoscale variability is improved after Argo data assimilation, especially in the Kuroshio extension area and along the section of 10°N. All these results suggest that this system is potentially useful for improving the simulation ability of oceanic numerical models. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Lu X.,State Oceanic Administration | Lu X.,Key Laboratory of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling MASNUM | Qiao F.,State Oceanic Administration | Qiao F.,Key Laboratory of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling MASNUM | And 6 more authors.
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2010

A three-dimensional, prognostic, wave-tide-circulation coupled numerical model is developed to study the effects of tidal mixing on the summertime vertical circulation in the Yellow Sea (YS). The distribution and mechanisms of upwelling are investigated by numerical means. Validated by historical tide gauge data, satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data, and cruise observation data, the model shows satisfactory performances in reproducing the dominant tidal system and three-dimensional sea temperature structure. Model results suggest that strong tidal mixing plays an important role in the formation of the vertical circulation in the YS. The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) is fringed by typical tidal mixing fronts (TMFs), which separate the cold, stratified water at the offshore side from the warm, well-mixed, shallow water at the other side. Considerable baroclinic gradient across the TMF makes the frontal zone the spot where the most active vertical circulation occurs; a secondary circulation is triggered with a distinct upwelling branch occurring mainly on the mixed side of the front. The numerical model produces systematic upwelling belts surrounding the YSCWM, and the upwelling is essentially induced by the TMF over sloping topography. The relative importance of tidal mixing and wind forcing for upwelling is further examined in numerical experiments. The southerly wind enhances the upwelling off the western coasts, but its overall influences in the whole YS are less important than tidal mixing. As shown by both satellite data and numerical modeling, the summertime SST field in the YS is featured by the stable existence of several site-selective surface cold patches (SCPs), most of which scatter in the waters off convex coastlines. One of the SCPs is found off Subei Bank, and the others are located off the eastern tip of Shandong Peninsula and off the three tips of Korean Peninsula. Two processes give rise to the SCP: on the one hand, TMF-induced upwelling supplies cold water from the deep layer; on the other hand, tidal mixing itself can stir the bottom water upward and homogenize the water column vertically. In the waters around the tips of peninsula in the YS, the tidal currents are extraordinarily strong, which provides a possible explanation for the site-selectivity of the SCPs. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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