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Wang J.,University of Science and Technology of China | Wang J.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Bai Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Bai Z.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Yang P.,China Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising. © 2013 Wang et al.


Zhang L.,University of Science and Technology of China | Wang J.,University of Science and Technology of China | Wang J.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Bai Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | And 2 more authors.
Catena | Year: 2015

Vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal-mine dumps is an effective way to reduce runoff and soil erosion and is a key to restoring ecosystems in ecologically sensitive regions. To investigate the effects of vegetation on runoff and erosion, a field experiment involving eight erosion plots was conducted on a dump at the Antaibao opencast coal mine in, Shanxi Province. The plots were divided into two location groups, platforms and slopes. Each plot was planted with a typical vegetation pattern. The volumes of runoff and soil erosion during each rainfall event were recorded during the rainy season. The results showed that plots on the platforms experienced a larger volume of runoff than plots on the slopes, while the slope plots generated a larger value of soil erosion than the platform plots. Vegetation restoration has different impacts on runoff and soil erosion. A plot covered with 1-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia and Hippophae rhamnoides was most effective in terms of soil conservation; the plots covered with 5-year-old mixed legume plants and 5-year-old mixed grass-shrub-arbor forest were most effective overall in preventing both runoff and soil erosion. Over the long term, vegetation can increase soil organic matter, improve soil physical properties and soil anti-erodibility, and reduce runoff and erosion to a safe level. This study provides a theoretical basis and technical support for land reclamation and soil and water conservation in vulnerable ecological mining regions of a loess plateau. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Zhao Z.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Bai Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Bai Z.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

Afforestation of native-tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration, but the understanding of ecological processes of restored vegetation is limited. We investigated the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored forest in mine spoil of Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After 17 years' development, three planted species (ROPS, ULPU and AIAL) showed significant aggregation although they were regularly distributed at plantation and characterized with great variability in abundance (from 570 to 1817) although they had equal density at plantation. ROPS became the dominant species, especially in the naturally regenerated medium individuals with 3 < DBH ≤ 7. On the contrary, the abundance of medium individuals of ULPU was very low although there's a very high number of small individuals with DBH ≤ 3, indicating a very low survival rate of ULPU seedlings. The difference in survival rate of planting trees and natural regeneration observed in the plot suggested that the environmental adaptability of three species in this area may differ markedly, and therefore, differing species planting pattern may improve the population structure and reduce the economic investment for spoil reclamation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Zhao Z.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Xi M.,University of Science and Technology of China | Jiang G.,University of Science and Technology of China | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Heavy metals contamination of soil is a widespread global problem. Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to improve the efficiency of phytoextraction which involves three subsequent levels: transfer of metals from the bulk soil to the root surfaces, uptake into the roots and translocation to the shoots. However, most studies focused on the first level. A hydroponic experiment, which addresses the latter two levels, was conducted to study the effects of EDTA, EDDS and IDSA on the uptake and the distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in the apoplast and the symplast of roots of maize (Zea mays, L.). The concentrations of the metals (with exception of Zn) in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all the chelants. EDTA was most effective for Pb uptake and IDSA was interestingly most effective for Cd uptake. Pb in the roots with EDTA was mostly distributed in the apoplast, while Zn, especially with IDSA, was mostly located in the symplast. The results indicated that, the capacity of chelant to enhance the nonselective apoplastic transport of metal may be most important for chelant enhanced phytoextraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Wang J.,University of Science and Technology of China | Yang R.,Shihezi University | Bai Z.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

Drastically disturbed minesoils can result in a significant loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN). To assess the effect of mining activities on minesoils and to track the changes in reclaimed soil quality, the variability of SOC and TN concentrations in the Shanxi Pingshuo Antaibao opencast coal-mine inner dump after dumping and before reclamation was analyzed using geostatistics, and a number of soil monitoring points were evaluated after land reclamation. Soil samples were collected from depths of 0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm and 60-80cm at 78 sampling sites in the study area over an area of 0.44km2. The coefficient of variation (CV) for TN was the least at <15% for depths of 0-40cm and 60-80cm. For TN at a depth of 40-60cm and the SOC at all depths, the CV was moderate at 15-35%. Interpolation using kriging displayed a high heterogeneity of TN and SOC, and the spatial structure of the original landform was partially or completely destroyed. Revegetation was an important measure for increasing the accretion of C and N compared to an unmined site. The kriging-interpolated maps were a very valuable tool in monitoring soil properties after land reclamation at the field scale, and RMSE can be used to determine the number of sampling point for soil properties. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Zhao Z.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Shahrour I.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Bai Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2013

Soil development is the key process of mine spoil reclamation. To investigate the effects of different plant species and reclamation time on the soil development, 9 plots in the reclaimed spoils of Pingshuo opencast coal mine in Shanxi, China were established and the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soils were analyzed. The results showed that, soil bulk density and field capacity in plots with longer reclamation time were statistically different from plots with younger vegetation in both the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers. Accordingly, values of organic matter and available nitrogen levels showed a significant increase in both 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth with reclamation time increasing and the top layer marked higher value except for some individual data. The organic matter in plot 8 in 0-20 cm depth with 13-year old vegetation reached 9.45 g kg-1, about 2.5-, 2.0- and 3.1-fold higher than the plots of 1-, 3- and 4-year old vegetation respectively. Total microbial amount showed a positive correlation with contents of organic matter which reached 1436.72 × 105 g-1 in plot 8 with 13-years old vegetation, about 11.3-fold greater than plot 1 of 1-yr old vegetation. Plots planted with sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) singly or mixed with other species tend to develop better soil aggregation and microbiological properties than other plots, which may be due to its particular biological characteristics, developed root system and high growth rate in the first 4-6 year and 8-10 year, indicating that sea buckthorn may be a good species choice for activating soil development in the early stage of reclamation. © 2012.


Wang Y.Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Zhao Z.Q.,University of Science and Technology of China | Zhao Z.Q.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Jiang G.Y.,University of Science and Technology of China
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

The effects of phosphates rock (PR) with different particle sizes {D97<4.26 (the diameters of 97% of the particles are less than 4.26 μm.), <36.83, <71.12 and <101.43 μm} and different concentration (2.5% and 5% content of try soil weight) on immobilizing heavy metal-contaminated soils by a perennial ryegrass greenhouse experiment are conducted. Results indicate that remediation effect of applying 5% content is more significant than 2.5%. Ryegrass biomass in shoots in the former applying content is much larger than the latter and for both roots and shoots, PR reduces the absorption and accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn, but no significant influence on Cd. While adding the same amount of different sizes of PR doesn't show significant differences between these treatments. Pb content at 5% level of the finest size of PR is the minimum, decreased by 33% and 56% compared to the control in roots and shoots respectively, which was also suitable for Zn, decreased by 12.65% and 39.61% respectively. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Yao Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Yao Z.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Zhou W.,University of Science and Technology of China | Zhou W.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation
4th International Workshop on Earth Observation and Remote Sensing Applications, EORSA 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Long-term vegetation monitoring is important for the assessment of the impacts of mining and reclamation activities in an area like the Antaibao, where extensive and rapid opencast mining occur continuously. Accurate information of vegetation fraction is important for assessing how mining activities affect the ecosystem in mining areas. A remote sensing method based on vegetation cover monitoring and assessment by using Landsat data sets with the temporal coverage from 1990 to 2010 was presented and applied to the Antaibao opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. To reduce the impact of phenology on remote sensing based vegetation monitoring, 7 Landsat data were selected during vegetation growing season (June-September). A total of 32 pixels were selected as the survey fields during vegetation growth season in August 2010. Vegetation fraction (VF) of arbores canopy in the selected plots was computed. We monitored reclaimed vegetation variation through analyzing time series data of 19 vegetation indices, which were usually applied to mine area monitoring, such as NDVI, EVI. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the VIs showed that PC1 and PC2 accumulatively accounted for 91.51% of VIs variance. The Regression analysis demonstrated that PC1 and PC2 were highly correlated with the measured vegetation fraction, with R2 of 0.74. In addition, we concluded that the vegetation system of South Dump, West Dump and West Enlarged Dump had gradually transformed to the natural ecosystem from 1990-2010. The vegetation in Inner Dump and Inner Enlarged Dump should be well restored. Reclamation was a long-time and dynamic project, whose effect is hard to determine in short term, while remote sensing technology is an effective way to monitor the inter-annual variation of vegetation recovery. © 2016 IEEE.


Wang J.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Dun Y.,University of Science and Technology of China | Guo Y.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation | Dou S.,Jilin Agricultural University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

Songnen plain is the main grain strategy reserve area of China, and it is also one of the three largest soda saline-alkali soil regions in the world. Soil salinization severely restricts the sustainable development of agriculture and the improvement of people's living standards. The land consolidation major projects officially launched in the west of Jilin Province in 2007 provides an effective way for comprehensive controlling salinity land. In the process of land consolidation, one of the most important problems need to be addressed was how to combine land consolidation with soil improvement to realize the purpose of increasing cultivated land areas and improving salinity soil. In order to study the Western Songnen Plain land consolidation effect on improving salinity soil, this paper took the land consolidation project in Zhenlai county of Jilin Province as study area, selected the original cultivated land, saline-alkali land and newly-added cultivated land as plots, adopted the methods of classical statistical analysis and canonical correspondence analysis to comparative study the differences of soil physical and chemical properties and soil ionic composition of different plots. And then we put forward related suggestions for land consolidation and improving salinity soil. The results showed that, in 0-20 and >20-40 cm soil layer, soil electrical conductivity of newly-added cultivated land was significantly decreased by 44.9% and 37.0% than saline-alkali land (P<0.05), but significantly higher than original cultivated land by 35.7% and 58.6%. The total actions and total anions of newly-added cultivated land were significantly lower than saline-alkali land (P<0.05). The exchange sodium percentage of saline-alkali land was around 38% and pH value was close to 10.0, that was classified to severe salinity soil. While the newly-added cultivated land soil exchange sodium percentage was 18.0% and 21.6%, and soil pH value was less than 9.0, that was classified to moderate salinity soil and close to the original cultivated land. Newly-added cultivated soil organic matter was higher than saline-alkali land by 33.4% and 61.3% significantly (P<0.05), but it was significantly lower than original cultivated 21.5% in 0-20 cm soil layer. Newly-added cultivated soil cation exchange capacity was increased by 16.7% and 25.1% than saline-alkali land (P>0.05), and it's slightly higher than original cultivated land. Canonical correspondence analysis results showed that soil physical and chemical properties and ionic composition had significant correlation with plot type distribution. Plot type changed from saline-alkali land to newly-added cultivated land was the process of soil salinization indices decreasing and fertility indices rising in the level of soil physical and chemical properties, and also the process of bicarbonate ion, carbonate ion and sodium ion content reduction in the level of soil ionic composition. Overall, the land consolidation project in Western Songnen Plain could improve salinity soil effectively, but the soil quality of newly-added cultivated land is still lower than the original cultivated land. Therefore, we suggest to improve salinity soil better through improvement of irrigation and drainage system, reasonable land leveling measure and scientific farming.


Hu X.,University of Science and Technology of China | Bai Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Bai Z.,Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2016

Mine reclamation has become a worldwide problem recently and has similar research directions both in China and abroad, including ecological restoration, mining technology, bioremediation technology, soil reconstruction techniques, soil quality testing, plant species selecting. The key target is to restore the ecological system and improve the environment. One of the main purposes of reclamation is to restore farmland, which is scarce in China. In addition, resettlement of residents and their living environment need to be taken into account. In this paper, the study area is the Pingshuo open-pit mine, which is located in Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province, China, and belongs to super-large open-pit mine with modern production. Mining activities began in 1987, and have lasted for 28 years until now. Fourteen rural settlements have moved, and resettlement population has reached 8400 by 2013. From the perspective of farming radius, buffer analysis of rural settlements was used to contrast the difference of farming radius before and after the open-pit mining by geographic information system (GIS) technology. Considering the impact of topography on farming radius, this paper calculated the terrain correction coefficient of farming radius in the study area using the achievements about relief amplitude, and the mean change-point analysis method was adopted to determine the best statistics grid unit to reflect terrain. Through buffer analysis, the result of spatial farming radius showed that the farming radius had a great change from 1986 to 2013 because of open-pit mining. Therefore, the best farming radius should be determined based on the result in 1986. Using the equation of farming radius, per capita arable land and the number of population were calculated through combining the method of "the ratio of arable land area to settlements land area" Finally, optimal farming radius was determined according to the calculation result about the terrain correction coefficient and the scale of arable land. We predicted the size and number of rural settlements after completing reclamation. The results showed that: 1) Affected by mining, the farming radius has expanded by 1500 m from 1986 to 2013, and the largest farming radius was 4500 m; 2) Determining the optimal statistics grid unit to calculate the value of relief amplitude, the result showed that 550 m × 550 m was the optimal statistics grid unit to reflect terrain in study area; 3) Based on the buffer analysis, digital elevation map neighbourhood analysis and forecasting, the terrain correction coefficient of farming radius was 1.6836, and the optimal actual farming radius was 1500 m, and therefore, the optimal spatial farming radius was 891 m. 4) On the premise of guaranteeing the arable land quantity unchanged, the total area of relocated rural settlements was about 651.24 hm2, and there were 67 rural settlements in total. Individual rural settlement area was predicted to be 9.72 hm2, and the control area of arable land was about 109.68 hm2. 5) The total relocated population would be about 29521 (7380 families). The results of this study can provide the reference for the implementment of relocating rural settlements and the reuse of reclaimed arable land in Pingshuo mining area. © 2016, Editorial Department of the Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.

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