Cheng P.,Chongqing Medical University |
Cheng P.,Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology |
Cheng P.,Jiamusi University |
Yu J.,Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology |
And 11 more authors.
Although some studies have reported the associations between specific metal element intake and risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD), the associations between specific metal element intake such as iron intake and PD are still conflicted. We aimed to determine whether intake of iron, zinc, and copper increases/decreases the risk of PD. PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched. We pooled the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios using random effects. Study quality was evaluated by the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Five studies including 126,507 individuals remained for inclusion, pooled RRs of Parkinson’s disease for moderate dietary iron intake was 1.08 (95 % CI 0.61–1.93, P = 0.787), and for high dietary iron intake was (1.03, 95 % CI 0.83–1.30, P = 0.766), respectively. The pooled RRs of Parkinson’s disease for the highest compared with the lowest dietary iron intake were 1.47 (95 % CI 1.17–1.85, P = 0.001) in western population and in males (RR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.01–2.01, P = 0.041). The pooled RRs of Parkinson’s disease for moderate or high intake of zinc, and copper were not statistically different (P > 0.05). PD increased by 18 % (RR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.02–1.37) for western population by every 10-mg/day increment in iron intake. Higher iron intake appears to be not associated with overall PD risk, but may be associated with risk of PD in western population. Sex may be a factor influencing PD risk for higher iron intake. However, further studies are still needed to confirm the sex-selective effects. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Italia. Source
Yao R.,Key Laboratory of Medical Diagnostics |
Cui Y.-L.,Key Laboratory of Medical Diagnostics |
Yuan J.,Key Laboratory of Medical Diagnostics |
Wang H.,Key Laboratory of Medical Diagnostics |
And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals
Objective: To investigate the protective effect of ΔA146Ply protein (hemolysin of Streptococcus pneumonia with a single deletion of A146) and the feasibility of the said protein as a candidate S. pneumonia vaccine. Methods: BALB/c mice were divided into test and control groups, and immunized i. n. with 30 μl of mixture of 15 μg ΔA146Ply with 1 mg/ml CT adjuvant and 30 μl of mixture of PBS with CT adjuvant respectively, once a week for 4 weeks. The specific antibody levels in sera and saliva of mice were determined by ELISA 1 week after the last immunization. Meanwhile, active protection test against S. pneumonia of several serotypes was performed on ΔA146Ply, while passive protection test on antisera of ΔA146Ply. The conservation of Ply protein in S. pneumonia was analyzed by Western blot. The IgG subtype and IL-17A level in sera of mice were determined by indirect ELISA. Results: The IgG titer in sera of mice in test group was 5. 12 × 105, while IgG and IgA titers in saliva were 4. 0 × 103 and 4. 8 × 10 3 respectively. Mucosal immunization with ΔA146Ply prolonged the survival time and increased the survival rate of mice effectively. The protective rates to S. pneumonia NCTC7466, CMCC(B) 31436, CMCC(B) 31614 and CMCC(B) 31207 were 50. 0%, 41. 7%, 50. 0% and 41. 7% respectively. In passive protection test, the survival rate of mice in test group was 70%. The subtypes of antibodies induced by mucosal immunization with ΔA146Ply were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b. IL-17A level reached a peak value of (678. 55 ± 189. 00) pg/ml 48 h after treatment. Ply was highly conserved in all the 4 S. pneumonia strains. Conclusion: Mucosal immunization with ΔA146Ply induced both humoral and cellular immune responses against infections with several S. pneumonia strains effectively, indicating that ΔA146Ply might be a good candidate protein of S. pneumonia vaccine. Source