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Xue C.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Xue C.,Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals in GuangDong | Huang R.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Huang R.,Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals in GuangDong | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: Recently originalization was proposed to be an effective way of duplicate-gene preservation, in which recombination provokes the high frequency of original (or wild-type) allele on both duplicated loci. Because the high frequency of wild-type allele might drive the arising and accumulating of advantageous mutation, it is hypothesized that recombination might enlarge the probability of neofunctionalization (Pneo) of duplicate genes. In this article this hypothesis has been tested theoretically.Results: Results show that through originalization recombination might not only shorten mean time to neofunctionalizaiton, but also enlarge Pneo.Conclusions: Therefore, recombination might facilitate neofunctionalization via originalization. Several extensive applications of these results on genomic evolution have been discussed: 1. Time to nonfunctionalization can be much longer than a few million generations expected before; 2. Homogenization on duplicated loci results from not only gene conversion, but also originalization; 3. Although the rate of advantageous mutation is much small compared with that of degenerative mutation, Pneocannot be expected to be small. © 2010 Xue et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Xue C.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Xue C.,Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals in GuangDong | Huang R.,GuangDong Institute for Monitoring Laboratory Animals | Huang R.,Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals in GuangDong | And 3 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2010

Since genome size and the number of duplicate genes observed in genomes increase from haploid to diploid organisms, diploidy might provide more evolutionary probabilities through gene duplication. It is still unclear how diploidy promotes genomic evolution in detail. In this study, we explored the evolution of segmental gene duplication in haploid and diploid populations by analytical and simulation approaches. Results show that (1) under the double null recessive (DNR) selective model, given the same recombination rate, the evolutionary trajectories and consequences are very similar between the same-size gene-pool haploid vs. diploid populations; (2) recombination enlarges the probability of preservation of duplicate genes in either haploid or diploid large populations, and haplo-insufficiency reinforces this effect; and (3) the loss of duplicate genes at the ancestor locus is limited under recombination while under complete linkage the loss of duplicate genes is always random at the ancestor and newly duplicated loci. Therefore, we propose a model to explain the advantage of diploidy: diploidy might facilitate the increase of recombination rate, especially under sexual reproduction; more duplicate genes are preserved under more recombination by originalization (by which duplicate genes are preserved intact at a special quasi-mutation-selection balance under the DNR or haplo-insufficient selective model), so genome sizes and the number of duplicate genes in diploid organisms become larger. Additionally, it is suggested that small genomic rearrangements due to the random loss of duplicate genes might be limited under recombination. Copyright © 2010 by the Genetics Society of America. Source

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