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Lu H.-J.,Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control | Qian J.,Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control | Kargbo D.,Ministry of Health and Sanitation | Zhang X.-G.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 18 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

During 2014–2015, an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) swept across parts of West Africa. The China Mobile Laboratory Testing Team was dispatched to support response efforts, during September 28–November 11, 2014, they conducted PCR testing on samples from 1,635 suspected EVD patients. Of those patients, 50.4% were positive, of whom 84.6% lived within a 3-km zone along main roads connecting rural towns and densely populated cities. The median time from symptom onset to testing was 5 days. At testing, 75.7% of the confirmed patients had fever, and 94.1% reported at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom, all symptoms, except rash and hemorrhage, were more frequent in confirmed than nonconfirmed patients. Virus loads were significantly higher in EVD patients with fever, diarrhea, fatigue, or headache. The case-fatality rate was lower among patients 15–44 years of age and with virus loads of <100,000 RNA copies/mL. These findings are key for optimizing EVD control and treatment measures. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved. Source


Zhang K.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang K.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | Zhang Z.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control | And 22 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2013

Replication and transmission of avian influenza virus (AIV) in domestic dogs and cats may pose a risk to humans. The susceptibility of cats and dogs to H9N2 influenza virus was evaluated by intranasally or orally inoculating animals with an H9N2 influenza virus. Cats had recoverable virus in respiratory tissues and the olfactory bulb three days post-inoculation and shed H9N2 virus into nasal washes and pharyngeal swabs from day 2 through day 10 post-inoculation. Virus was recovered from respiratory tissues of dogs three days post-inoculation, but was not detected in nasal washes or pharyngeal swabs. While no virus shedding or replication was detected in cats or dogs following consumption of H9N2-infected chicks, one of two cats and one of two dogs seroconverted. Two of three naïve contact cats seroconverted following co-housing with cats that were intranasally inoculated with H9N2 virus, whereas none of the three naïve contact dogs seroconverted. Our results demonstrate that H9N2 AIV can infect domestic cats and dogs via the upper respiratory tract and indicate that cats are more susceptible than dogs to H9N2 AIV. These findings suggest that domestic dogs and cats may serve as host species contributing to the adaptation of H9N2 viruses in mammals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Zhang M.,Jilin University | Zhang M.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | Wang J.,Jilin University | Wang J.,Academy of Military Medical science of PLA | And 15 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2013

Apoptin is a chicken anemia virus-derived, p53-independent, bcl-2-insensitive apoptotic protein with the ability to specifically induce apoptosis in various human tumor cells, but not in normal cells. To explore the use of apoptin in tumor gene therapy, we assessed a recombinant adenovirus expressing the apoptin protein (Ad-hTERTp-E1a-Apoptin) in order to determine its lethal and growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 and RM-1 cells in vitro and its antitumor effect on solid tumors in vivo. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB), 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and Annexin V assays showed that Ad-hTERTp-E1a-Apoptin inhibited the proliferation of PC-3 and RM-1 cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, and that this inhibitory effect was dose and time-dependent. In the animal models, Ad-hTERTp-E1a- Apoptin significantly inhibited tumor growth and extended the lifespan of animals. Experimental results indicate that Ad-hTERTp-E1a-Apoptin has a potential application in tumor gene therapy. Source


Tong Y.-G.,State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity | Shi W.-F.,Institute of Pathogen Biology | Liu D.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Qian J.,Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control | And 53 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

A novel Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in March 2014 has infected more than 25,000 people in West Africa, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths. Preliminary analyses of genome sequences of 81 EBOV collected from March to June 2014 from Guinea and Sierra Leone suggest that the 2014 EBOV originated from an independent transmission event from its natural reservoir followed by sustained human-to-human infections. It has been reported that the EBOV genome variation might have an effect on the efficacy of sequence-based virus detection and candidate therapeutics. However, only limited viral information has been available since July 2014, when the outbreak entered a rapid growth phase. Here we describe 175 full-length EBOV genome sequences from five severely stricken districts in Sierra Leone from 28 September to 11 November 2014. We found that the 2014 EBOV has become more phylogenetically and genetically diverse from July to November 2014, characterized by the emergence of multiple novel lineages. The substitution rate for the 2014 EBOV was estimated to be 1.23 × 10 â '3 substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density interval, 1.04 × 10 â '3 to 1.41 × 10 â '3 substitutions per site per year), approximating to that observed between previous EBOV outbreaks. The sharp increase in genetic diversity of the 2014 EBOV warrants extensive EBOV surveillance in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia to better understand the viral evolution and transmission dynamics of the ongoing outbreak. These data will facilitate the international efforts to develop vaccines and therapeutics. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Yang G.,Jilin University | Yang G.,Academy of Military Medical Science | Meng X.,Jilin University | Sun L.,Jilin Province Tumor Hospital | And 15 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2015

The efficacy and specificity of treatment are major challenges for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic virotherapy is an attractive drug delivery platform for cancer gene therapy. In the present study, the dual-specific antitumor oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a, was used to infect SW1116 human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines and CT26 mouse-CRC-cell bearing BALB/c mouse models for testing antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro assays revealed that infection with Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a induced a significant cytotoxic effect on the CRC cell line, SW1116; however, the normal human cell line, GES, was only slightly inhibited by the recombinant adenovirus. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining and an annexin V assay indicated that infection of SW1116 cells with Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a resulted in a significant induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, western blotting and flow cytometry revealed a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase 3, 6 and 7 in Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a-infected SW1116 cells. In the animal models, Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a was shown to significantly inhibit tumor growth and extend the survival times of the animals. Therefore, the experimental results indicated that Ad-Apoptin-hTERT-E1a has potential for application in tumor gene therapy. © 2015, Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved. Source

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