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Zhang L.H.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Zhang L.H.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Li M.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Li M.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | And 11 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

In order to screen alternative fungicides for carbendazim-resistant Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. from mango (Mangifera indica L.), the toxicity of 23 fungicides to four isolates of carbendazim-resistant and four isolates of carbendazim-sensitive C. gloeosporioides was tested by mycelium growth rate methods. Results were analyzed using the EC50 value, the EC90 value and cross-resistance to each other. Prochloraz was most toxic to C. gloeosporioides, with the average values of 0.04 mg/L (EC 50 value) and 0.21 mg/L (EC90 value), followed by difenoconazole, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, flusilazole, flusilazole· famoxadone, tebuconazole, myclobutanil and polyoxin. These fungicides had no cross resistance with carbendazim, suggesting that they could be the first choice to control mango anthracnose. In addition, the average EC50 and EC90 values of triadimefon, iprodione, tricyclazole and mancozeb were lower as compared to the other fungicides, and these fungicides could also be a choice to control mango anthracnose. The selected isolates of C. gloeosporioides showed cross resistance among benzimidazole fungicides, between benzimidazole fungicides and diniconazole, among azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and myclobutanil·kresoximmethyl, among azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and triadimefon, between difenoconazole and flusilazole·famoxadone. Chlorothalonil had negative cross resistance with azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and myclobutanil·kresoxim-methyl. Hymexazol had negative cross resistance with azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl myclobutanil ·kresoxim-methyl and triadimefon. Therefore, these chosen fungicides are recommended for use to avoid the resistance of carbendazim-resistant C. gloeosporioides. © ISHS 2013. Source


Lu B.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Lu B.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhu W.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Zhu W.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2014

To optimise the production of Asecodes hispinarum Bouček (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), some of the factors affecting rates of parasitism, number of offspring produced per host and sex ratio of A. hispinarum were investigated. The numbers and sex ratio of A. hispinarum offspring per host reduced significantly at extreme low humidity (30% relative humidity [RH]), but there was no significant effect on parasitism. Photoperiod had no significant effects on any of the life traits tested. A. hispinarum was able to reproduce via arrhenotoky, and while increasing the proportion of female parents increased the number of parasitoids produced, the proportion of female offspring decreased. Older females showed a lower rate of parasitism than young females, however, maternal age did not affect the number or the sex ratio of offspring. Increasing the number of hosts offered to a pair of parasitoids significantly increased the number of parasitised hosts but decreased the parasitism rate while the sex ratio of progeny was not affected. Present work showed that to maximise the production of female parasitoids, a parasitoid/host ratio of 1:1, using one-day old A. hispinarum at a female/male ratio of 3:1 and RH of at least 55% is recommended. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Guo L.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Guo L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang Y.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Yang Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is the causal agent of fusarium wilt in bananas (Musa spp.). This fungus poses a threat to banana production throughout the world. Here, two Foc genes, fga1 and fga3, were functionally characterized. These genes encode proteins homologous to the G-protein α subunits GPA1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MAGC from Magnaporthe grisea, respectively. The deletion of fga1 leads to a phenotypic defect in colony morphology and reductions in vegetative growth, conidiation and pathogenicity against the banana plant (Musa spp. cv. Brazil), which was not observed for the δfga3 deletion mutant. Intriguingly, both δfga1 and δfga3 deletion mutants showed declines in intracellular cyclic AMP levels and increases in heat resistance, suggesting that FGA1 regulates growth, development, pathogenicity, and heat resistance, whereas FGA3 modulates heat resistance, potentially through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway. These findings offer insights into the roles of the G-protein α subunits in the development and pathogenicity of the fungus Foc. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hu M.J.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Hu M.J.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Hu M.J.,Key Laboratory for Detection and Monitoring of Invasive Pest of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry | Gao Z.Y.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | And 11 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

86 isolates of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., causing mango stem end rot, were obtained from 3 regions in Hainan province of China and tested for their resistance to carbendazim (MBC) in laboratory. The toxicity of 23 fungicides to 2 isolates of carbendazim-resistant and 2 isolates of carbendazim-sensitive B. theobromae was tested by mycelium growth rate methods, and analyzed by the EC50 value, the EC90 value and the cross-resistance to each other. The results showed that the carbendazim-resistant isolates had been found in Danzhou, Ledong and Sanya, Hainan province. 10 fungicides including sporgon, propiconazole, flusilazole, prochloraz, iprodione, difenoconazole, tebuconazole, myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin and validamycin A were recommended for choices for controlling mango stem end rot disease. In addition, the fungicides of chlorothalonil and mancozeb could also be chosen. The resistance to thiophanate-methyl, kresoximmethyl and diniconazole was appeared in the tested pathogens. In cross-resistance test, the results showed that carbendazim, kresoxim-methyl and diniconazole had crossresistance each other, while kresoxim-methyl and validamycin A had negative crossresistance each other. To avoid the resistance of the pathogen to the fungicides, such fungicides should be used by turns. © ISHS 2013. Source


Guo L.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Guo L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang L.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Yang L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense causes banana (Musa spp.) vascular wilt. Here, we examine the roles of G-protein α and β subunit genes fga2 and fgb1 in F. oxysporum development and pathogenicity. Deletion of either or both genes led to increased heat resistance, lower cAMP levels, and enhanced pigmentation, whereas phenotypic defects of colony morphology and reduced conidiation were seen in Δ fgb1 and Δ fga2/Δ fgb1 deletion strains but not in Δ fga2 Conversely, Δ fgb1 retained greater virulence against banana, suggesting that FGA2 regulates fungal virulence whereas FGB1 modulates both development and virulence, potentially via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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