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Ding X.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Ouyang M.-A.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Liu X.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian Taiwan Crops | Wang R.-Z.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University
Journal of Chemistry

Ginkgo biloba is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant which has potent insecticidal activity against brown planthopper. The MeOH extract was tested in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory assay with IC50 values of 252.1 g/mL. Two ginkgolides and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. It revealed that the 13 isolated flavonoids were found to inhibit AChE with IC50 values ranging from 57.8 to 133.1 g/mL in the inhibitory assay. AChE was inhibited dose dependently by all tested flavonoids, and compound 6 displayed the highest inhibitory effect against AChE with IC50 values of 57.8 g/mL. © 2013 Xiao Ding et al. Source

Zhang S.L.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Liu G.K.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian Taiwan Crops | Liu G.K.,Ghent University | Janssen T.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Pathology

Surveys conducted in peanut production areas of China revealed peanut pod rot in several fields in Shandong and Hebei Provinces, China. A large quantity of an unknown stem nematode was isolated from the hulls and seeds of peanuts, herein described as Ditylenchus arachis n. sp. The new species is characterized by a combination of the following features: lateral lip sectors distinctly projected, stylet delicate, 8·4-10 μm in length, six lines in the lateral field, tail elongate-conoid, bursa covering about 68-86% of tail length. Pathogenicity tests showed that D. arachis n. sp. could infect peanut (Arachis hypogaea), but not sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) or potato (Solanum tuberosum). Morphologically, D. arachis n. sp. appears closest to D. africanus, D. myceliophagus and D. destructor, but can be differentiated based upon a combination of morphological characteristics, host preference and molecular sequence data. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, based on 18S rDNA, the D2-D3 expansion region of 28S rDNA, and the ITS1-5·8S-ITS2 region, confirmed its status as a new species. A sister relationship with D. destructor was appointed, rather than with its ecologically very similar congener D. africanus. © 2013 British Society for Plant Pathology. Source

Wang Z.H.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian Taiwan Crops | Wang Z.H.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Ecology | Wang Z.H.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Huang J.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian Taiwan Crops | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Natural History

The Chinese species of the genus Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are reviewed. Sixteen species, C. abdominis Huang, C. annulicornis Ratzeburg, C. azumai Tachikawa, C. chaoi Huang, C. curtifuniculatus Huang, C. flaviceps (Girault & Dodd), C. flavicornis Compere & Annecke, C. fulvus (Compere & Annecke), C. furviflagellatus Huang, C. furvus Huang, C. languidus Huang, C. longialatus Huang, C. longifuniculatus Huang, C. maculatus Huang, C. wuyiensis Huang, and one new species, Coccobius albiscutellum Wang and Huang sp.nov., are treated. A key is provided for the recognition of the females of all Chinese species of Coccobius, and notes are given on their use in biological control of scale insect pests. http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F510059B-F176-46BA-B7B5-8252B06BE91F. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Hussain M.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Hussain M.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian Taiwan Crops | Hussain M.,Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology | Lin Y.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

The longevity of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, infected by an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, was studied by microcalorimetry. Experimental results of microcalorimetry suggest that in the process of metabolism of D. citri heat or heat flow declined exponentially. The metabolism of D. citri inhibited by increasing temperature, and the longevity of D. citri decreased gradually with respect to temperature. The longevity of D. citri almost reaches 500 h at 25 °C and D. citri died within 130 h at 41 °C under high-temperature exposure. The same phenomenon, decrease in longevity and metabolism inhibition, was observed under the low-temperature exposure. The supercooling point of insects can be derived from a cooling curve plotting the temperature versus time by using microcalorimetry. The heat released due to phase change can be determined by using microcalorimeter. Our results indicated that microcalorimetry can be used to measure the metabolism of herbivore insects. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary Source

Gurr G.M.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Gurr G.M.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian Taiwan Crops | Gurr G.M.,Charles Sturt University | You M.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | You M.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian Taiwan Crops
Frontiers in Plant Science

Biological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular - particularly DNA-related-techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to ‘who eats whom’ questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and now - in turn - are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate plant defense mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles. © 2016 Gurr and You. Source

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