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Li J.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests Ministry of Education | Feng Z.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests Ministry of Education | Wu J.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests Ministry of Education | Huang Y.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests Ministry of Education | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

Background: The crystal structure of viral proteins is not available for many plant viruses including tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Results: By homology modeling, we mapped the RNA binding sites and discovered a protective feature of TSWV nucleocapsid (N). Conclusion: Homology modeling provided a basis for functional analysis of TSWV N interacting with RNA. Significance: This approach might be applicable for other plant viruses. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Published in the U.S.A. Source


Ma Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ye W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 11 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2015

We identified a glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12) protein, XEG1, produced by the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae that exhibits xyloglucanase and β-glucanase activity. It acts as an important virulence factor during P. sojae infection but also acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in soybean (Glycine max) and solanaceous species, where it can trigger defense responses including cell death. GH12 proteins occur widely across microbial taxa, and many of these GH12 proteins induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. The PAMP activity of XEG1 is independent of its xyloglucanase activity. XEG1 can induce plant defense responses in a BAK1-dependent manner. The perception of XEG1 occurs independently of the perception of ethylene-inducing xylanase. XEG1 is strongly induced in P. sojae within 30 min of infection of soybean and then slowly declines. Both silencing and overexpression of XEG1 in P. sojae severely reduced virulence. Many P. sojae RXLR effectors could suppress defense responses induced by XEG1, including several that are expressed within 30 min of infection. Therefore, our data suggest that PsXEG1 contributes to P. sojae virulence, but soybean recognizes PsXEG1 to induce immune responses, which in turn can be suppressed by RXLR effectors. XEG1 thus represents an apoplastic effector that is recognized via the plant’s PAMP recognition machinery. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source


Jing M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jing M.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests Ministry of Education | Guo B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo B.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests Ministry of Education | And 21 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

Phytophthora pathogens secrete an array of specific effector proteins to manipulate host innate immunity to promote pathogen colonization. However, little is known about the host targets of effectors and the specific mechanisms by which effectors increase susceptibility. Here we report that the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae uses an essential effector PsAvh262 to stabilize endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-luminal binding immunoglobulin proteins (BiPs), which act as negative regulators of plant resistance to Phytophthora. By stabilizing BiPs, PsAvh262 suppresses ER stress-triggered cell death and facilitates Phytophthora infection. The direct targeting of ER stress regulators may represent a common mechanism of host manipulation by microbes. Source


Wang Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ferreira A.O.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Yu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 20 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2011

The genome of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae contains nearly 400 genes encoding candidate effector proteins carrying the host cell entry motif RXLR-dEER. Here, we report a broad survey of the transcription, variation, and functions of a large sample of the P. sojae candidate effectors. Forty-five (12%) effector genes showed high levels of polymorphism among P. sojae isolates and significant evidence for positive selection. Of 169 effectors tested, most could suppress programmed cell death triggered by BAX, effectors, and/or the PAMP INF1, while several triggered cell death themselves. Among the most strongly expressed effectors, one immediate-early class was highly expressed even prior to infection and was further induced 2- to 10-fold following infection. A second early class, including several that triggered cell death, was weakly expressed prior to infection but induced 20- to 120-fold during the first 12 h of infection. The most strongly expressed immediate-early effectors could suppress the cell death triggered by several early effectors, and most early effectors could suppress INF1-triggered cell death, suggesting the two classes of effectors may target different functional branches of the defense response. In support of this hypothesis, misexpression of key immediate-early and early effectors severely reduced the virulence of P. sojae transformants. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source

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