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Friedrich K.,University Hospital Jena | Dolznig H.,Medical University of Vienna | Han X.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Moriggl R.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
BioScience Trends | Year: 2017

STAT1/STAT3 transcription factors are important regulators for development of normal, infected or inflammed cells. They are also critically involved in the progression of various malignant tumours, including epithelial-derived carcinomas. Here, we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) insights for STAT1/3, where controversial functions for STAT3 were reported. For a long time STAT3 has been regarded as a driver of tumour malignancy and its activation was associated with negative clinical outcome. In contrast, STAT1 was generally viewed as an independent tumour suppressor and positive prognostic marker. Here we discuss the experimental evidence for the tight association and regulation of oncogenic STAT3 transcription kept at bay by nuclear STAT1. We summarise current research and describe cellular models of different STAT1/STAT3 expression ratios. STAT1/3 expression levels are influenced by the mutational status of carcinoma cells associated with nuclear unphosphorylated STAT1. Animal tumour models and results from in vitro experiments allow for the conclusion that both proteins interact as antagonistic transcription factors in CRC cells. These STATs steer also important processes during infection and inflammation that influence development and progression of CRC. The STAT1/3 interplay is important to understand gene regulation and we describe it here similar like the YIN/YANG dualism. Thus, we propose to evaluate both STAT1 and STAT3 expression patterns in cancers in a dual manner instead of regarding them as independent transcription factors. This conceptual dualistic view could advance diagnostic predictions in the future.


An S.-C.,Peking University | Xu L.-L.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu L.-L.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Li F.-D.,Peking Union Medical College | And 6 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2011

The high mortality of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses infection in humans gives rise to considerable concern that it might someday cause another lethal pandemic. At present there is no other effective alternative besides the early and enough administration of neuraminidase inhibitors, which may be crucial for the patient management. However, its efficacy is sometimes limited because of the late administration in some patients especially the seriously ill ones and the continual occurrence of oseltamivir resistant A (H5N1) strains. The specific candidate vaccine are still under development and the practical value of passive immunization is hard to be widely applied because of the scarcity of convalescent human plasma, especially in the early stage of a serious and rapidly progressing pandemic. Statins and fibrates, both of which are used in clinical practice, have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects and other multiple biologic activities. So we hypothesized that the two immunomodulatory agents may exhibit synergistic effects when they were combined to neuraminidase inhibitors to treat the A (H5N1) viruses infections via inhibiting the production of either the early inflammatory mediators (e.g., many cytokine/chemokine) or the late mediator (e.g., High Mobility Group Box Protein 1), even showing the anti-viral activities with the prevention of the development of antiviral resistance. Therefore, the novel triple combinations may be an optimal management to confront the next lethal influenza pandemic on its very beginning. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Lu D.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Shao H.-T.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Ge W.-P.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Liu N.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Ginsenoside-Rb1 (Rb1) is known to be partially associated with the inhibition of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) inhibits the activation of the calcium/calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (Ca 2+/CaM/ CaMKII) pathway. The α-myosin heavy chain cTnT transgenic mouse was previously reported as a model for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and it was used to test the effects of combinations of Rb1 and TMPP in reversing the progression of DCM and the potential mechanism. Survival, echocardiography, histologic features assessed the effectiveness of Rb1 and TMPP treatments. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to determine expression levels of certain genes. This study clearly demonstrated that treatment with a combination of Rb1 and TMPP could inhibit the expression of HB-EGF, calmodulin1 (Calm1), and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta (Camk2b). Rb1 alone mainly reduced the expression of HB-EGF, and TMPP alone mainly reduced the expression of Calm1 and Camk2b. Treatment with Rb1 and TMPP had synergistic effects on the amelioration of chamber dilation, contractile dysfunction, interstitial fibrosis, and ultrastructural degeneration in cTnT R141W mice when compared with the results of treatment with Rb1 or TMPP alone, and those were probably due to the inhibition of both HB-EGF and the Ca 2+/CaM/CaMKII pathway. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Yuan J.,Peking Union Medical College | Yuan J.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Yuan J.,Key Laboratory of Animal Models of Human Diseases | Xu L.,Peking Union Medical College | And 26 more authors.
Virology | Year: 2015

Avian H9N2 influenza viruses circulating in domestic poultry populations are occasionally transmitted to humans. We report the genomic characterization of an H9N2 avian influenza virus (A/Brambling/Beijing/16/2012) first isolated from a healthy Fringilla montifringilla brambling in northern China in 2012. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this H9N2 virus belongs to the BJ/94-like sublineage. This virus had a low pathogenicity for chickens and was able to replicate at a low level in mouse lung tissue. Transmission studies in ferrets showed that this H9N2 strain shed high levels of the virus in nasal and throat swabs. In vitro receptor binding assays, the virus bound only to α-2,6 linkage receptors and not to the avian-type α-2,3 linkage receptors, suggesting that H9N2 influenza viruses present potential public health risks. Therefore, attention should be paid to H9N2 influenza viruses and the close surveillance of H9N2 viruses in poultry. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Tang J.,Peking Union Medical College | Tang J.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Zhan L.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhan L.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2016

Apoptosis was considered as one of the important host defense mechanisms against mycobacteria infection. In macrophage, the main target cell of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, apoptosis after infection could help kill the bacillus inside and process the antigens for further presentation and proper immune response. Here, we identified a role of TLR8 during the apoptosis induced by Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) infection in THP-1 cells. Knockdown TLR8 further increased the apoptosis induced by BCG infection, and this enhanced apoptosis was caspase-dependent. During this process, Erk1/2, JNK and NFκB pathways were negatively affected and contributed to the enhanced apoptosis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Xu L.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu L.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Bao L.,Peking Union Medical College | Bao L.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2011

The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus is one of candidates for future pandemic. Since H5N1 viruses had previously been isolated only from avian species, the outbreak raised questions about the ability of these viruses to cause severe disease and death in humans. Pregnant women are at increased risk for influenza-associated illness and death. However, little is known about whether influenza viruses could transmit to the fetus through the placenta, and the effects of abortion and preterm delivery to maternal influenza infection are not well understood. We found that the H5N1 viruses could vertical transmit to the fetus through the placenta in the BALB/c mouse model, and the viruses could partly be evacuated by the pregnant mice during abortion or preterm delivery. This study may further our understanding about the transmission of this highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, supply optimized clinical treatment method for pregnant women, and shed some light on better preventing and controlling for future potential outbreak of H5N1 influenza pandemic. © 2011 Xu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yan L.,Wuhan University | Wei X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Tang Q.-Z.,Wuhan University | Feng J.,Wuhan University | And 13 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2011

Aims Mindin is a secreted extracellular matrix protein, an integrin ligand, and an angiogenesis inhibitor, other examples of which are all key players in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy. However, its function during cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. This study was aimed to identify the effect of mindin on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanisms. Methods and resultsA significant down-regulation of mindin expression was observed in human failing hearts. To further investigate the role of mindin in cardiac hypertrophy, we used cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with gain and loss of mindin function and cardiac-specific Mindin-overexpressing transgenic (TG) mice. In cultured cardiomyocytes, mindin negatively regulated angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated hypertrophic growth, as detected by [ 3H]-Leucine incorporation, cardiac myocyte area, and hypertrophic marker protein levels. Cardiac hypertrophy in vivo was produced by aortic banding (AB) or Ang II infusion in TG mice and their wild-type controls. The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by echocardiography as well as by pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. Mindin overexpression in the heart markedly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and left ventricular dysfunction in mice in response to AB or Ang II. Further analysis of the signalling events in vitro and in vivo indicated that these beneficial effects of mindin were associated with the interruption of AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1Smad signalling. ConclusionThe present study demonstrates for the first time that mindin serves as a novel mediator that protects against cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure by blocking AKT/GSK3β and TGF-β1Smad signalling. © 2011 The Author.


Zhao H.-P.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Lu D.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Zhang W.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | Zhang L.,Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Aim: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common cause of heart failure, and pharmacological intervention is not currently available. Here we investigate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) on the progression of DCM in the cTnTR141W transgenic mouse model. Methods: The cTnTR141W transgenic mice aged 2 months were divided into model group and TMPP group, whereas age-matched nontransgenic mice were used as wild-type control. TMPP 45 mgkg-1d-1 was administered for 7 months. Following assessment of cardiac function by echocardiography, cardiac tissues were prepared for histology and electron microscopy. Levels of molecular markers for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis were detected by RT-PCR. Expression of structural proteins of the sarcomere and intercalated disc was determined by Western blot. Results: TMPP significantly prevented cardiac dilatation and dysfunction with the development of DCM, and decreased mortality by 54%. TMPP decreased HW/BW ratios and expression of hypertrophic markers BNP and ACTA1, as well as reduced interstitial collagen deposition and expression of profibrotic markers Col1a1 and Col3a1. TMPP attenuated ultrastructural disruption caused by cTnTR141W expression and decreased expression of structural proteins myotilin and E-cadherin which were up-regulated in the cTnTR141W heart. Moreover, TMPP reduced the mRNA expression of Calm1 and Camk2b in the cTnTR141W heart. Conclusion: Our results suggest that TMPP could be a promising drug for prevention and treatment of DCM. © 2010 CPS and SIMM. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology | Year: 2012

Ginsenoside-Rb1 (Rb1) is known to be partially associated with the inhibition of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) inhibits the activation of the calcium/calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (Ca/CaM/CaMKII) pathway. The -myosin heavy chain cTnT(R141W) transgenic mouse was previously reported as a model for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and it was used to test the effects of combinations of Rb1 and TMPP in reversing the progression of DCM and the potential mechanism. Survival, echocardiography, histologic features assessed the effectiveness of Rb1 and TMPP treatments. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to determine expression levels of certain genes. This study clearly demonstrated that treatment with a combination of Rb1 and TMPP could inhibit the expression of HB-EGF, calmodulin1 (Calm1), and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta (Camk2b). Rb1 alone mainly reduced the expression of HB-EGF, and TMPP alone mainly reduced the expression of Calm1 and Camk2b. Treatment with Rb1 and TMPP had synergistic effects on the amelioration of chamber dilation, contractile dysfunction, interstitial fibrosis, and ultrastructural degeneration in cTnT(R141W) mice when compared with the results of treatment with Rb1 or TMPP alone, and those were probably due to the inhibition of both HB-EGF and the Ca/CaM/CaMKII pathway.


PubMed | Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta pharmacologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common cause of heart failure, and pharmacological intervention is not currently available. Here we investigate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) on the progression of DCM in the cTnT(R141W) transgenic mouse model.The cTnT(R141W) transgenic mice aged 2 months were divided into model group and TMPP group, whereas age-matched nontransgenic mice were used as wild-type control. TMPP 45 mg.kg(-1).d(-1) was administered for 7 months. Following assessment of cardiac function by echocardiography, cardiac tissues were prepared for histology and electron microscopy. Levels of molecular markers for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis were detected by RT-PCR. Expression of structural proteins of the sarcomere and intercalated disc was determined by Western blot.TMPP significantly prevented cardiac dilatation and dysfunction with the development of DCM, and decreased mortality by 54%. TMPP decreased HW/BW ratios and expression of hypertrophic markers BNP and ACTA1, as well as reduced interstitial collagen deposition and expression of profibrotic markers Col1a1 and Col3a1. TMPP attenuated ultrastructural disruption caused by cTnT(R141W) expression and decreased expression of structural proteins myotilin and E-cadherin which were up-regulated in the cTnT(R141W) heart. Moreover, TMPP reduced the mRNA expression of Calm1 and Camk2b in the cTnT(R141W) heart.Our results suggest that TMPP could be a promising drug for prevention and treatment of DCM.

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