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Ding X.,Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior CCNU | Ding X.,Central China Normal University | Ding X.,Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province | Cheng X.,Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior CCNU | And 8 more authors.
Experimental Psychology | Year: 2015

A growing body of evidence suggested that elapsing time is tightly associated with space in a specific way (e.g., Spatial Temporal Association of Response Codes or STARC effect). However, existing findings cannot justify a hypothesis that elapsing time is recoded directly into a spatial linear representation in working memory. The present study addresses this fundamental question by using three modified STARC-related working memory paradigms. In different experiments, participants were asked to give order judgment, order-irrelevant STM recognition judgment, or motor-related free-choice judgment, immediately after successive presentation of a set of disparate stimuli. Results show that responses to early stimuli were faster or more often with the left key and responses to late stimuli were faster or more often with the right key. These findings clearly support the hypothesis that elapsing time is directly and automatically recoded into a spatial linear representation in working memory. © 2014 Hogrefe Publishing. Source


Cheng X.,Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior CCNU | Cheng X.,Central China Normal University | Cheng X.,Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province | Yang Q.,Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior CCNU | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

A fundamental ability for humans is to monitor and process multiple temporal events that occur at different spatial locations simultaneously. A great number of studies have demonstrated simultaneous temporal processing (STP) in human and animal participants, i.e., multiple 'clocks' rather than a single 'clock'. However, to date, we still have no knowledge about the exact limitation of the STP in vision. Here we provide the first experimental measurement to this critical parameter in human vision by using two novel and complementary paradigms. The first paradigm combines merits of a temporal oddball-detection task and a capacity measurement widely used in the studies of visual working memory to quantify the capacity of STP (CSTP). The second paradigm uses a two-interval temporal comparison task with various encoded spatial locations involved in the standard temporal intervals to rule out an alternative, 'object individuation'-based, account of CSTP, which is measured by the first paradigm. Our results of both paradigms indicate consistently that the capacity limit of simultaneous temporal processing in vision is around 3 to 4 spatial locations. Moreover, the binding of the 'local clock' and its specific location is undermined by bottom-up competition of spatial attention, indicating that the time-space binding is resource-consuming. Our finding that the capacity of STP is not constrained by the capacity of visual working memory (VWM) supports the idea that the representations of STP are likely stored and operated in units different from those of VWM. A second paradigm confirms further that the limited number of location-bound 'local clocks' are activated and maintained during a time window of several hundreds milliseconds. © 2014 Cheng et al. Source

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