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Ding L.,Wuhan University | Chen K.-L.,Hubei University | Chen K.-L.,Key Laboratory of Hubei Province | Liu T.,Wuhan University | And 2 more authors.
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Spatial-temporal hotspot pattern analysis of environmental pollution incidents provides an indispensable source of information for the further development of incident prevention measures. In this study, the spatial-temporal patterns of environmental pollution incidents in China in the period of 1995-2012 were analyzed, using the Spatial Getis-Ord statistic and an Improved Prediction Accuracy Index (IAPI). The results show that, in this period, the occurrence of environmental incidents exhibited a dynamic growth pattern but then dropped and continued to drop after the year 2006, which was considered a crucial turning point. Not coincidentally, this corresponds to the year when the State Council issued its National Environmental Emergency Plan, and following the examination of major incidents, special actions were taken to strengthen the control of incidents and emergency responses. The results from Getis-Ord General G statistical analysis show that the spatial agglomeration phenomenon was statistically significant after 1999 and that the level of spatial agglomeration was rising, while the Getis-Ord Gi * statistical analysis reveals that environmental pollution incidents were mainly agglomerated in the Pan Yangtze River Delta and Pan Pearl River Delta regions. Accordingly, the spatial-temporal hotspot pattern based on the IAPI values at the provincial scale could be categorized into: stable hotspots, unstable hotspots, and cold-spot areas. The stable hotspots category was further divided into three subtypes: industrial distribution type, industrial transfer type, and extensive economic growth type. Finally, the corresponding measures for sustainable management were proposed: stable hotspots were classified as essential regions requiring the immediate prevention and control of environmental pollution incidents; unstable hotspots were characterized by their need for ongoing and continual prevention measures, and cold-spots were those areas that required strengthened environmental monitoring. Meanwhile, it was identified that a multi-level environmental pollution incident emergency response and regional (incident) joint control plan needed to be well prepared and carried out effectively. To prevent environmental pollution and the regional transfer of pollution from incidents, measures towards achieving regional environmental planning, environmental risk prevention, environmental emergency monitoring and adequate emergency responses must be efficiently implemented. © 2015 by the authors.

Ding L.,Wuhan University | Chen K.-L.,Hubei University | Chen K.-L.,Key Laboratory of Hubei Province | Cheng S.-G.,Wuhan University | Wang X.,Wuhan University
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2015

With the excessive development of social economy, water scarcity and water environment deterioration become a common phenomenon in metropolis. As a crucial component of urban water environment system, urban lake is mainly influenced by social economic system and tourism system. In this paper, a framework for quantitatively evaluating development sustainability of urban lake was established by a multi-objective model that represented water ecological carrying capacity (WECC). And nine key indicators including population, irrigation area, tourist quantity, the average number of hotel daily reception, TP, TN, CODMn, BOD5 were chosen from urban social-economy system and natural resilience aspects, with their index weight was determined by using the Structure Entropy Weight method. Then, we took Wuhan East Lake, the largest urban lake in China as a case study, and selected five time sections including 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012 to synthetically evaluate and comparatively analyze the dynamic change of WECC. The results showed that: firstly, the water ecological carrying capacity values of the East Lake in five time sections were 1.17, 1.07, 1.64, 1.53 and 2.01 respectively, which all exceeded 1 and increased fluctuation. The rapid growth of population and GDP lead to sharply increasing demand for water quantity. However, a large amount of the domestic sewage and industrial waste led by economic development increases pressure on ecological environment of urban lakes. Secondly, the carrying capacity of the East Lake for tourist activities was still low. The value in 2012 was only 0.22, keeping at a slowly increasing phase, which indicates that the East Lake has large opportunity and space for developing the water resource carrying capacity and could make further efforts to attract tourists. Moreover, the WECC of the East Lake was mainly affected by rapid social and economic development and water environment damage caused by organic pollutants. From the view of urban water sustainable management, we must deeply recognize the reality that water shortages and the limited carrying capacity, and dynamic assessment of WECC provides an early warning approach and control direction of water environment. For the East Lake, it is the primary target to mitigate the carrying capacity of social-economy, especially for prevention of lake area encroachment shrinking and domestic wastewater discharge. © 2015.

Chen K.,Hubei University | Chen K.,Key Laboratory of Hubei Province | Wang X.,Wuhan University | Li D.,Nanyang Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2015

The conflict between rapid urban growth and the maintenance of water landscape is gaining momentum in China. The shapes of the urban lakes have been deeply affected by the rapid urbanization in recent decades. This study analyzed the temporal-spatial change of East Lake as the largest urban lake in China using remote sensing images during 1990-2013. Then the STIRPAT model is employed to assess the impact of human activities as driving force on lake changes. The results indicated that the surface area of East Lake showed a slight decrease trend in the first decade and a sharply reduce trend from 2000 to 2013. The accelerated decline trend of landscape shape indexes showed that the shapes complexity of East Lake's water body was decreasing and human intervention was intensifying in the study area. The increasing population and urbanization are found to be the principal driving forces of recession of East Lake ecosystem. And we conclude the driving mechanism of morphological change of urban lake to better understand the reasons of the urban lake change. The conservation of urban lake should be emphasized due to its fragility during rapid urban expansion. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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