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Gu M.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Fan S.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Ding X.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 4 more authors.

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce belongs to the genus Polygonatum family of plants. In traditional Chinese medicine, the root of Polygonatum odoratum, Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati, is used both for food and medicine to prevent and treat metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, obesity and cardiovascular disease. However, there is no solid experimental evidence to support these applications, and the underlying mechanism is also needed to be elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of the extract of Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati (ER) on metabolic disorders in diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. In the preventive experiment, the ER blocked body weight gain, and lowered serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and fasting blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT), reduced the levels of serum insulin and leptin, and increased serum adiponectin levels in mice fed with a high-fat diet significantly. In the therapeutic study, we induced obesity in the mice and treated the obese mice with ER for two weeks. We found that ER treatments reduced serum TG and fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance in the mice. Gene expression analysis showed that ER increased the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) γ and α and their downstream target genes in mice livers, adipose tissues and HepG2 cells. Our data suggest that ER ameliorates metabolic disorders and enhances the mRNA expression of PPARs in obese C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diet. © 2013 Gu et al. Source

Zhang Q.,Southwest University | Chen W.,Southwest University | Zhao J.,Southwest University | Zhao J.,National Goji Engineering and Technology Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry

We quantified the levels of polyphenols, carotenoids and polysaccharides in fruits of the eight Chinese native goji genotypes, antioxidant activities of these fruit extracts were also evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Quercetin-rhamno-di-hexoside (435-1065 μg/g) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (159-629 μg/g) were found to be the predominant flavonoids. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid (113-526 μg/g), while zeaxanthin (17-9306 μg/g) was the major carotenoid. The total antioxidant activities (TAA) of the berry extracts were significantly correlated with the total polysaccharide and phenolic contents, but not with total carotenoid (TC) levels. Overall, fruits of the Ningxia goji (Lycium barbarum L.) genotypes, DM (Damaye), NJ1 (Ningji No.1), BH (Baihua) and NH (Ningxiahuangguo) were not only rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and polysaccharides, but had significantly higher TAA than those of the other genotypes, suggesting that they represent an excellent source of antioxidants for human nutrition. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Zheng H.,Southwest University | Zhang Q.,Southwest University | Quan J.,Chongqing Nanshan Botanical Garden | Zheng Q.,Southwest University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry

The composition and content of sugars, organic acids, volatiles and carotenoids, in the pulps of six grapefruit cultivars, were examined by HPLC and GC-MS. The results showed that sucrose was the dominant sugar in grapefruit, making up 40.08-59.68% of the total sugars, and the ratio of fructose to glucose was almost 1:1. Citric acid was the major organic acid and represented 39.10-63.55% of the total organic acids, followed by quininic acid. The ratios of individual sugars and organic acids play an important role in grapefruit taste determination. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant volatiles in grapefruit, in particular d-limonene and caryophyllene. Caryophyllene, α-humulene, humulen-(v1), β-linalool and tert-butyl 2-methylpropanoate are the characteristic aroma compounds of grapefruit. Although β-carotene is the primary carotenoid in grapefruit, the pulp color is mainly determined by the ratios of zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. Our results provide the first complete chemical characterization of the taste, aroma and color of grapefruit. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Jing L.,Southwest University | Jing L.,Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions | Zhang Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Fan S.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology

D-limonene is a major constituent in citrus essential oil, which is used in various foods as a flavoring agent. Recently, D-limonene has been reported to alleviate fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet. Here we determined the preventive and therapeutic effects of D-limonene on metabolic disorders in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. In the preventive treatment, D-limonene decreased the size of white and brown adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride (TG) and fasting blood glucose levels, and prevented liver lipid accumulations in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, D-limonene reduced serum TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance, and increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obese mice. Using a reporter assay and gene expression analysis, we found that D-limonene activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α signaling, and inhibited liver X receptor (LXR)-β signaling. Our data suggest that the intake of D-limonene may benefit patients with dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia and is a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating metabolic disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Zhao X.J.,Southwest University | Zhao X.J.,Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions | Zhou Z.Q.,Southwest University | Zhou Z.Q.,Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions
Current Nanoscience

Background: Pectin is a natural hetero-polysaccharide found in some fruits and vegetables with good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Besides the inherent functions of pectin in plants and its normal applications as gelling and thickening agents in food industry, pectin-based nanomaterials have attracted great attention owing to their unique properties such as the high specific surface area compared to the bulk pectin. Pectin-based nanomaterials combine the advantages of both pectin and the nanoscaled particles so that they show great potential in some other fields. Methods: Recent advance of pectin-based nanomaterials is reviewed including their synthesis strategies and applications. Results: At present, common methods based on nanoemulsion technique, ionotropic gelation, redox reactions and so on have been reported for the synthesis of pectin nanomaterials and pectin stabilized/capped nanomaterials. And these pectinbased nanomaterials can be used as gene/drug delivery system, antimicrobial agents and adsorbents for metal ions and dyes in wastewater treatment. Conclusion: The variety of nanoparticles is increasing and their applications are wider, so there are still more possibilities for us to investigate the pectin-based nanomaterials including the synthesis methods and applications in other fields. For example, the synthesis of fluorescent pectin-based nanoparticles and their applications in sensing and bioimaging. Using the advantages of both pectin and nanomaterials, we hope more pectin-based nanomaterials can be designed and synthesized and further applied in desired areas. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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