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Liu X.,Zhejiang University | Liu X.,Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development and Quality Improvement | Liu X.,Hangzhou Normal University | Yang X.,Zhejiang University | And 7 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2012

We studied how mitochondria affect ethylene response via modulation of CTR1 expression in cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) Brassica juncea. The expression of CTR1 gene was reduced in CMS compared with male-fertile (MF) lines. We observed that hypocotyl and root lengths were shorter than in the MF line during germination in the dark. An enhanced ethylene response was observed in CMS plants as shown by the CMS and maintainer line phenotypes treated with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. The phenotype in CMS plants could be recovered to the maintainer line when treated with Ag +. One ethylene response gene, plant defensin gene, was detected to be induced in CMS. The behavior of this phenotype could be mimicked by treating the maintainer line with antimycin A that disturbs mitochondrial function, which showed reduced length of hypocotyl and roots, and resulted in similar expression patterns of ethylene-related genes as in CMS. The reduced length of hypocotyl and roots could be recovered to the maintainer line by treatment with gibberellic acid (GA 3). In addition, the GA 3 content was reduced in CMS plants and in the MF line treated with antimycin A. Ethylene treatment markedly affects GA 3 content; however, GA 3 did not significantly affect ethylene-related gene expression in regards to regulation of hypocotyl and root length, which suggests that ethylene acts upstream via gibberellin to regulate hypocotyls and root development. Taken together, our results suggest a link between mitochondrial modulation of the ethylene and gibberellin pathway that regulates the development of hypocotyl and roots. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

Zhu L.,Zhejiang University | Zhu L.,Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development and Quality Improvement | Li Y.,Zhejiang University | Li Y.,Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development and Quality Improvement | And 6 more authors.
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

The role of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway and the relationship between AOX and ethylene in resistance to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) were investigated in systemic infected mustard leaves. Expressions of AOX1a and ethylene biosynthesis-related genes were enhanced in the upper uninoculated leaves at 6 days of postinoculation (dpi). Increased accumulation of AOX1a transcript and reduced levels of TuMV-CP were also observed after pretreatment with AA (a cytochrome pathway inhibitor) or ACC (an ethylene precursor) at non-lethal concentrations. Meanwhile, application of AVG (an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor) mostly blocked TuMV-induced AOX activity and substantially increased TuMV susceptibility in the upper leaves. SHAM (AOX pathway inhibitor) pretreatment partially reduced the ACC-induced cyanide-resistant respiration and TuMV resistance. Conversely, AA and SHAM pretreatments had little effect on generation of ethylene. These results suggested that the TuMV-induced increase of AOX was partly involved in the ethylene pathway, and ethylene unregulated AOX in upper uninoculated mustard leaves. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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