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Guo W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qi X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qi X.,Key Laboratory of High efficient and Safe Utilization of Agriculture Water Resources of CAAS | Li P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2017

Microbial communities were sensitive to changes of soil environmental conditions. Taking the greenhouse tomatoes as the research object, the effect of the characteristics of bacterial community structure and the impact of environmental factors were studied under reclaimed water irrigation with conventional nitrogen fertilization and reducing nitrogen topdressing. Miseq high-throughput technology was performed and the formation of different soil bacterial community structure were determined by Redundancy Analysis(RDA). The results indicate that the community structure of Nitrospirae, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were significantly influenced by reclaimed water irrigation. The bacteria in soil irrigated with reclaimed water was 53 genera, including 41 common genera in reclaimed water irrigation and clean water irrigation soils, 12 endemic genera in reclaimed water irrigation soil. With the decreasing of nitrogen, bacterial Simpson index showed that first increase then decrease and increase again. It was beneficial to the improvement of species richness and diversity in soil bacterial community by reducing nitrogen fertilizer application. The structure of soil microbial community was influenced by soil chemical properties. It was more conducive to the growth of soil bacteria, which had the ability of degradation and regeneration of organic carbon and nitrogen, and thus to change the soil microbial community structure. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.


Shi Y.,North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power | Shi Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qi X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qi X.,Agriculture Water and Soil Environmental Field Science Research Station of Xinxiang City Henan province of CAAS | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Simulation: Systems, Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Partial root-zone drying irrigation (PRD) has been established as an efficient technology to save water without sacrificing crop yield, but its effectiveness in saving nutrients and reducing the impact on soil and water environment is less well understood. In this paper, we present the results of a field experimental study with potatoes to demonstrate that PRD can save not only water but also nitrogen. It keeps soil water at 90% of the field capacity, alternately keeping half of the roots dry in both subsurface-drip and furrow PRD. The measurements of soil nitrogen after harvest revealed that the residual mineral nitrogen in the soil from 0 to 30cm deep reduced by 29.72% and 17.05% respectively under drip PRD and furrow PRD compared to the corresponding full irrigation. Similarly, for soil in depth from 30 to 60cm, these increases to 13.52% and 33.17% respectively under drip full irrigation and furrow full irrigation compared to the corresponding PRD irrigation. It indicates a significant decrease in nitrogen leaching when irrigated using drip PRD. © 2016, UK Simulation Society. All rights reserved.


Li P.,Farmland Irrigation Research Institute of CAAS | Li P.,Xi'an University of Technology | Qi X.,Farmland Irrigation Research Institute of CAAS | Qi X.,Agriculture Water and Soil Environmental Field Science Research Station of Xinxiang City Henan Province of CAAS | And 4 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

The suitable ratio of canal to well in the combined well-canal irrigation area can contribute to safety of groundwater environment and sustainable regional agriculture production. In order to investigate the influence of canal-to-well ratio on regional soil salinity accumulation, dynamics of groundwater depth, and groundwater hydrochemical characteristics in combined well-canal irrigation area, this study was carried out in a typical area in the People's Victory Canal area in China. The agriculture water consumption and precipitation in the People's Victory Canal area from 1954 to 2014 were collected, and the canal-to-well ratio, dynamics of groundwater depth and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater from 2008 to 2014 in the research area were analyzed. The relationships between precipitation, groundwater depth, groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and the canal-to-well ratio were explored. The results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between canal-to-well ratio and annual precipitation in research area (P<0.05). The variation coefficient of groundwater depth in the upstream of branch canals was higher than that of downstream of branch canals. Accumulated variation in soil electrical conductivity at 0-100 cm depth of 2nd branch canal was less than that of 1st branch canal and 3rd branch canal by 4.77% and 5.55%, respectively. Compared with the year of 2013, the area of groundwater depth greater than 11 m in 1st branch canal, 2nd branch canal and 3rd branch canal during the wintering period of winter wheat in 2014 was increased by 31.78%, 25.07% and 40.81%, respectively. When the water consumption amount and method were same, the high canal-to-well ratio can result in a small increase of area with groundwater depth beyond 11 m, indicating that the high canal-to-well ratio can alleviate the deterioration of groundwater depth. Alkaline trend of groundwater during dry and normal seasons in the research area was obvious owing to unrestrained groundwater exploitation. Affected by climate change, the reduction of precipitation in the combined well-canal irrigation area was obvious. Meanwhile, average irrigation amount by canal in the past 5 years was 2.90×108 cm3, accounting for 75.52% of mean annual irrigation amount. On the other hand, ground water overdraft in the research area would be remained in order to ensure agricultural sustainable production, which would be bound to aggravate alkaline trend of groundwater and expand the range of deep groundwater zone. It could be concluded that the suitable ratio of canal to wells decreased the groundwater exploitation and alleviated the alkaline trend of groundwater environment, moreover, maintained the reasonable groundwater depth. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Li Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Z.,Agriculture Water and Soil Environmental Field Science Research Station of Xinxiang City of Henan Province of CAAS | Li Z.,Key Laboratory of High efficient and Safe Utilization of Agriculture Water Resources of CAAS | Qi X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 15 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

Biochar is widely used as a promising green and cost-effective alternative for soil amendment, because of its agronomic benefits in soil carbon sequestration and facilitating nutrient cycling, and improvements in water use efficiency and crop growth and yield. The absorption of water and nutrients for plant from soil is directly influenced by root morphology, and root morphology plays a significant role in plant growth and water use efficiency. But there is limited information on the interaction among root morphology and plant growth, water use efficiency under biochar application. Hence, in order to investigate the effects of biochar on winter wheat growth, yield, water use efficiency and root morphology, in this study, a one-year field experiment with different application amounts (0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 t/hm2) of wheat straw biochar (pyrolysis temperature of 600℃) was carried out under subsurface drip irrigation condition. The preliminary results showed that the tiller number, efficient spike number and yield of winter wheat were significantly affected (P<0.05) by biochar, increased by 1.6%-4.9%, 0.7%-1.5%, and 1.0%-5.9%, respectively. Plant height and spike length were not affected by wheat straw biochar. Grain number and 1000-grain weight were significantly increased (P<0.05) only under the treatments of 30, 40, and 50 t/hm2 application of wheat straw biochar. Grain number increased by 4.7%, 8.6% and 2.7%, respectively and 1000-grain weight increased by 5.6%, 8.0% and 5.0%, respectively, which showed biochar application could effectively increase winter wheat yield through the increase of tiller number, efficient spike number, grain number and 1000-grain weight. The water consumption of winter wheat decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the increase of application amount of wheat straw biochar, which decreased by 2.6%, 7.0%, 7.7%, 9.1% and 9.4% respectively under the biochar application amounts of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 t/hm2. The water use efficiency increased from 17.06 to 17.69-19.57 kg/hm2·mm with the increase of application amount of wheat straw biochar, and the highest value was obtained under the treatment of 40 t/hm2. The root morphology characteristics of winter wheat were significantly affected by wheat straw biochar. The application of wheat straw biochar increased total root length of 0-20 and ≥20-40 cm for winter wheat by 2.8%-14.6% and 8.4%-21.2%, respectively, increased root surface area by 5.6%-19.5% and 1.9%-13.6%, respectively and increased average root diameter by 0.4%-4.1% and 1.4%-2.0%, respectively. The application of wheat straw biochar had less positive effect on average root diameter of winter wheat, compared with total root length and root surface area. In comparison with other levels of biochar application, the treatment of 40 t/hm2 was more effective in the improvement of winter wheat root growth. The root morphology characteristics were very significantly correlated with the yield of winter wheat (P<0.001). Compared to other application amounts of wheat straw biochar, the treatment of 40 t/hm2 had the most significant impact on the growth, yield, water use efficiency and root morphology characteristics of winter wheat. This study provides references for scientific and rational utilization of biochar in agriculture. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.

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