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Di C.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Di C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Di C.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Yang L.,Lanzhou University | And 21 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2013

p73, has two distinct promoters, which allow the formation of two protein isoforms: full-length transactivating (TA) p73 and an N-terminally truncated p73 species (referred to as DNp73) that lacks the N-terminal transactivating domain. Although the exact cellular function of DNp73 is unclear, the high expression levels of the genes have been observed in a variety of human cancers and cancer cell lines and have been connected to pro-tumor activities. Hence the aim of this review is to summarize DNp73 expression status in cancer in the current literature. Furthermore, we also focused on recent findings of DNp73 related to the biological functions from apoptosis, chemosensitivity, radiosensitibity, differentiation, development, etc. Thus this review highlights the significance of DNp73 as a marker for disease severity in patients and as target for cancer therapy. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Zhou X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Zhou X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou X.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Zhao Y.,Guilin Medical University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background:Heavy-ion therapy has an advantage over conventional radiotherapy due to its superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity in cancer therapy. It could be a potential alternate approach for hydatid cyst treatment. However, there is no information currently available on the cellular and molecular basis for heavy-ion irradiation induced cell death in cystic echinococcosis.Methododology/Principal Findings:LD50 was scored by protoscolex death. Cellular and ultrastructural changes within the parasite were studied by light and electron microscopy, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and copy number were measured by QPCR, and apoptosis was determined by caspase 3 expression and caspase 3 activity. Ionizing radiation induced sparse cytoplasm, disorganized and clumped organelles, large vacuoles and devoid of villi. The initial mtDNA damage caused by ionizing radiation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetic of DNA repair was slower after carbon-ion radiation than that after X-rays radiation. High dose carbon-ion radiation caused irreversible mtDNA degradation. Cysts apoptosis was pronounced after radiation. Carbon-ion radiation was more effective to suppress hydatid cysts than X-rays.Conclusions:These studies provide a framework to the evaluation of attenuation effect of heavy-ion radiation on cystic echinococcosis in vitro. Carbon-ion radiation is more effective to suppress E. multilocularis than X-rays. © 2013 Zhou et al.

Zhou X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Zhou X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou X.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Zhang X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Heavy-ion irradiation induces a higher frequency of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which must be properly repaired. Critical shortening of telomeres can trigger DNA damage responses such as DSBs. Telomeres are very sensitive to oxidative stress such as ionizing radiation. The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is the central component in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair complex and participates in telomere maintenance. Therefore, it is expected to enhance the cell killing effect of heavy-ion irradiation via DNA-PKcs inhibition. To test this hypothesis, cellular radiosensitivity was measured by the clonal genetic assay. DNA damage repair was relatively quantified by long PCR. Apoptosis was quantified by flow-cytometric analysis of annexin V/PI double staining, and senescence was analyzed by galactosidase activity. Telomere length was semi-quantified by real-time PCR. P53 and p21 expression was determined by western blotting. Our data demonstrated that MCF-7 and HeLa cells with DNA-PKcs inhibition were more susceptible to carbon-ion irradiation than Those without DNA-PKcs inhibition. Even though NHEJ was inhibited by the DNA-PKcs specific inhibitor, NU7026, most DNA damage induced by carbon-ion irradiation was repaired within 24 hours after irradiation in both cell lines. However, potential lethal damage repair (PLDR) could not restore cellular inactivation in DNA-PKcs inhibited cells. MCF-7 cells showed extensive senescence and accelerated telomere length reduction, while HeLa cells underwent significant apoptosis after irradiation with NU7026 incubation. In addition, both cell lines with shorter telomere were more susceptible to carbon-ion radiation. Our current data suggested that DNA-PKcs inhibition could enhance cellular sensitivity to carbon-ion radiation via disturbing its functional role in telomere end protection. The combination of DNA-PKcs inhibition and carbon-ion irradiation may be an efficient method of heavy-ion therapy. © 2013 Zhou et al.

Sun C.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Sun C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun C.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Sun C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2014

Mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also the target of cellular ROS. ROS damage to mitochondria leads to dysfunction that further enhances the production of mitochondrial ROS. This feed-forward vicious cycle between mitochondria and ROS induces cell death. Within a few minutes of radiation exposure, NADPH oxidase is activated to elevate the ROS level. Activated NADPH oxidase might induce the feed-forward cycle of mitochondria and this is a possible mechanism for cancer cell death induced by heavy ion irradiation. We found that after 4Gy of 12C6+ ion radiation of HepG2 cells, the NADPH oxidase membrane subunit gp91phox was not involved in enzyme activation through increased expression; however, the subunit p47phox was involved in activation by being translocated to the membrane. 12C6+ ion radiation clearly decreased the ΔΨm of HepG2 cells, increasing mitochondrial DNA damage and inducing cell death. Pretreatment with apocynin (APO, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) effectively prevented the ΔΨm decrease, mitochondrial DNA damage, and cell death induced by radiation. However, these protective effects were not observed with APO treatment after irradiation exposure. These data demonstrated that NADPH oxidase activation was an initiator in mitochondrial damage. Once mitochondria entered the feed-forward cycle, cell fate was no longer controlled by NADPH oxidase. Only antioxidants that targeted mitochondria such as MitoQ could break the cycle and release cells from death. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Zhou X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Zhou X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou X.,Key Laboratory of Heavy ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | And 14 more authors.
Mitochondrion | Year: 2011

There have been a small number of reports of radiation-induced mtDNA damage, and mtDNA supercoiling formation change induced by ionizing radiation has not been investigated before. This study evaluated mtDNA damage and supercoiling formation change after X-irradiation. The human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells were used for analysis. Modified supercoiling-sensitive real-time PCR approach was used to evaluate mitochondrial DNA supercoiling formation change and copy number; long-PCR method was applied for the quantification of mtDNA damage. MtDNA damage and formation change induced by high-dose irradiation was persistent in 24. h after irradiation and was not significant after low-dose irradiation. MtDNA copy number was slightly increased after high-dose irradiation and a transit increase was observed after low-dose irradiation. This is the first study to evaluate radiation-induced mitochondrial DNA supercoiling formation change using real-time PCR. Combined with data of ROS generation and dynamics of mitochondrial mass, our findings suggested that mtDNA is sensitive to radiation hazards, indicating mitochondrial biogenesis play an important role in radiation-induced cellular response. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society.

Liu Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Liu Y.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Liu Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang L.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2015

DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) plays a critical role in non-homologous end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Little is known, however, regarding the relationship between DNA-PKcs and IR-induced angiogenesis; thus, in this study we aimed to further elucidate this relationship. Our findings revealed that lack of DNA-PKcs expression or activity sensitized glioma cells to radiation due to the defective DNA DSB repairs and inhibition of phosphorylated AktSer473. Moreover, DNA-PKcs deficiency apparently mitigated IR-induced migration, invasion and tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) in conditioned media derived from irradiated DNA-PKcs mutant M059J glioma cells or M059K glioma cells that have inhibited DNA-PKcs kinase activity due to the specific inhibitor NU7026 or siRNA knockdown. Moreover, IR-elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was abrogated by DNA-PKcs suppression. Supplemental VEGF antibody to irradiated-conditioned media was negated enhanced cell motility with a concomitant decrease in phosphorylation of the FAKTry925 and SrcTry416. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs suppression was markedly abrogated in IR-induced transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) accumulation, which is related to activation of VEGF transcription. These findings, taken together, demonstrate that depletion of DNA-PKcs in glioblastoma cells at least partly suppressed IR-inflicted migration, invasion, and tube formation of HMEC-1 cells, which may be associated with the reduced HIF-1α level and VEGF secretion. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs may be a promising therapeutic approach to enhance radio-therapeutic efficacy for glioblastoma by hindering its angiogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1094-1103, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sun C.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Sun C.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Sun C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang H.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | And 13 more authors.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Redox balance plays an important role in the maintenance of cell growth and survival. Disturbance of this equilibrium can alter normal cellular processes. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often found in cancer cells. However, cancer cells have an efficient antioxidant system to counteract the increased generation of ROS. This high antioxidant capacity also favors resistance to drugs and radiation. Here, we show that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a natural antioxidant, effectively decreased ROS in HepG2 cells in a time-dependant manner at 0. 5, 1, and 2 h of treatment. The decreased ROS caused redox imbalance and reductive stress. To adapt to this state, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, which regulates the antioxidant enzyme system, was significantly decreased. Antioxidant enzymes reached their lowest level at 6 h after ISL treatment. Endogenous ROS were still being generated so after 6 h of ISL treatment, ROS were clearly higher than before ISL treatment, causing redox imbalance in the HepG2 cells which changed from reductive to oxidative stress. At this stage, cells were irradiated with X-rays. The excess ROS induced serious oxidative stress, resulting in radiosensitization. Therefore, we concluded that ISL induced oxidative stress by disturbing the redox status and ultimately enhancing the radiosensitivity of HepG2 cells. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Li H.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Li H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li H.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Li H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2014

Heavy ion radiation, a high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, has been shown to have adverse effects on reproduction in male mice. The aim of this study was to profile and investigate the differentially expressed proteins in pubertal male mice testes following carbon ion radiation (CIR). Male mice underwent whole-body irradiation with CIR (1 and 4. Gy), and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis was used to investigate the alteration in protein expression in 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) gels of testes caused by irradiation after 14 days. 8 differentially expressed proteins were identified and these proteins were mainly involved in energy supply, the endoplasmic reticulum, cell proliferation, cell cycle, antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial respiration, which play important roles in the inhibition of testicular function in response to CIR. Furthermore, we confirmed the relationship between transcription of mRNA and the abundance of proteins. Our results indicated that these proteins may lead to new insights into the molecular mechanism of CIR toxicity, and suggested that the gene expression response to CIR involves diverse regulatory mechanisms from transcription of mRNA to the formation of functional proteins. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Sun C.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Sun C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun C.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Sun C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2012

Oxidative stress plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L.; shows potent antioxidant property. Here we investigated the inhibitory effects of salidroside on tumor metastasis in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells in vitro. The results indicated that salidroside significantly reduced wound closure areas of HT1080 cells, inhibited HT1080 cells invasion into Matrigel-coated membranes, suppressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) activity, and increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) expression in a dose-dependent manner in HT1080 cells. Salidroside treatment upregulated the E-cadherin expression, while downregulated the expression of β1-integrin. As an antioxidant, salidroside inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The results also showed that salidroside could inhibit the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these results suggest that salidroside inhibits tumor cells metastasis, which may due to its interfere in the intracellular excess ROS thereby down-regulated the ROS-PKC-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Xie Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Xie Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xie Y.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Zhao Q.Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | And 16 more authors.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2014

Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in carbon ion irradiation. Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound with impressive antioxidant properties. What's more, curcumin is recently proved to exert its effects partly radioprotection. In vivo, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin against 12C6+radiation-induced cerebral injury. Our results showed that 4Gy heavy ion radiation-induced spatial strategy and memory decline and reduction of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were all consistently improved by curcumin, and the augmentation of cerebral malonaldehyde (MDA) was lowered by curcumin. Furthermore, both the cerebral cells nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein and three typically recognized Nrf2 downstream genes, NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) were consistently up-regulated in curcumin-pretreated mice. Our study confirmed the antagonistic roles of curcumin to counteract radiation-induced cerebral injury in vivo and suggested that the potent Nrf2 activation capability might be valuable for the protective effects of curcumin against radiation. This provides a potential useful radioprotection dietary component for human populations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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