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Li H.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Li H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li H.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Li H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2014

Heavy ion radiation, a high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, has been shown to have adverse effects on reproduction in male mice. The aim of this study was to profile and investigate the differentially expressed proteins in pubertal male mice testes following carbon ion radiation (CIR). Male mice underwent whole-body irradiation with CIR (1 and 4. Gy), and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis was used to investigate the alteration in protein expression in 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) gels of testes caused by irradiation after 14 days. 8 differentially expressed proteins were identified and these proteins were mainly involved in energy supply, the endoplasmic reticulum, cell proliferation, cell cycle, antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial respiration, which play important roles in the inhibition of testicular function in response to CIR. Furthermore, we confirmed the relationship between transcription of mRNA and the abundance of proteins. Our results indicated that these proteins may lead to new insights into the molecular mechanism of CIR toxicity, and suggested that the gene expression response to CIR involves diverse regulatory mechanisms from transcription of mRNA to the formation of functional proteins. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Liu Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Liu Y.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Liu Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang L.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2015

DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) plays a critical role in non-homologous end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Little is known, however, regarding the relationship between DNA-PKcs and IR-induced angiogenesis; thus, in this study we aimed to further elucidate this relationship. Our findings revealed that lack of DNA-PKcs expression or activity sensitized glioma cells to radiation due to the defective DNA DSB repairs and inhibition of phosphorylated AktSer473. Moreover, DNA-PKcs deficiency apparently mitigated IR-induced migration, invasion and tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) in conditioned media derived from irradiated DNA-PKcs mutant M059J glioma cells or M059K glioma cells that have inhibited DNA-PKcs kinase activity due to the specific inhibitor NU7026 or siRNA knockdown. Moreover, IR-elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was abrogated by DNA-PKcs suppression. Supplemental VEGF antibody to irradiated-conditioned media was negated enhanced cell motility with a concomitant decrease in phosphorylation of the FAKTry925 and SrcTry416. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs suppression was markedly abrogated in IR-induced transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) accumulation, which is related to activation of VEGF transcription. These findings, taken together, demonstrate that depletion of DNA-PKcs in glioblastoma cells at least partly suppressed IR-inflicted migration, invasion, and tube formation of HMEC-1 cells, which may be associated with the reduced HIF-1α level and VEGF secretion. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs may be a promising therapeutic approach to enhance radio-therapeutic efficacy for glioblastoma by hindering its angiogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1094-1103, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sun C.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Sun C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun C.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Sun C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2012

Oxidative stress plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L.; shows potent antioxidant property. Here we investigated the inhibitory effects of salidroside on tumor metastasis in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells in vitro. The results indicated that salidroside significantly reduced wound closure areas of HT1080 cells, inhibited HT1080 cells invasion into Matrigel-coated membranes, suppressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) activity, and increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) expression in a dose-dependent manner in HT1080 cells. Salidroside treatment upregulated the E-cadherin expression, while downregulated the expression of β1-integrin. As an antioxidant, salidroside inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The results also showed that salidroside could inhibit the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these results suggest that salidroside inhibits tumor cells metastasis, which may due to its interfere in the intracellular excess ROS thereby down-regulated the ROS-PKC-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Zhou X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Zhou X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou X.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Zhao Y.,Guilin Medical University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background:Heavy-ion therapy has an advantage over conventional radiotherapy due to its superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity in cancer therapy. It could be a potential alternate approach for hydatid cyst treatment. However, there is no information currently available on the cellular and molecular basis for heavy-ion irradiation induced cell death in cystic echinococcosis.Methododology/Principal Findings:LD50 was scored by protoscolex death. Cellular and ultrastructural changes within the parasite were studied by light and electron microscopy, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and copy number were measured by QPCR, and apoptosis was determined by caspase 3 expression and caspase 3 activity. Ionizing radiation induced sparse cytoplasm, disorganized and clumped organelles, large vacuoles and devoid of villi. The initial mtDNA damage caused by ionizing radiation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetic of DNA repair was slower after carbon-ion radiation than that after X-rays radiation. High dose carbon-ion radiation caused irreversible mtDNA degradation. Cysts apoptosis was pronounced after radiation. Carbon-ion radiation was more effective to suppress hydatid cysts than X-rays.Conclusions:These studies provide a framework to the evaluation of attenuation effect of heavy-ion radiation on cystic echinococcosis in vitro. Carbon-ion radiation is more effective to suppress E. multilocularis than X-rays. © 2013 Zhou et al.

Sun C.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Sun C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun C.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Sun C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2014

Mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also the target of cellular ROS. ROS damage to mitochondria leads to dysfunction that further enhances the production of mitochondrial ROS. This feed-forward vicious cycle between mitochondria and ROS induces cell death. Within a few minutes of radiation exposure, NADPH oxidase is activated to elevate the ROS level. Activated NADPH oxidase might induce the feed-forward cycle of mitochondria and this is a possible mechanism for cancer cell death induced by heavy ion irradiation. We found that after 4Gy of 12C6+ ion radiation of HepG2 cells, the NADPH oxidase membrane subunit gp91phox was not involved in enzyme activation through increased expression; however, the subunit p47phox was involved in activation by being translocated to the membrane. 12C6+ ion radiation clearly decreased the ΔΨm of HepG2 cells, increasing mitochondrial DNA damage and inducing cell death. Pretreatment with apocynin (APO, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) effectively prevented the ΔΨm decrease, mitochondrial DNA damage, and cell death induced by radiation. However, these protective effects were not observed with APO treatment after irradiation exposure. These data demonstrated that NADPH oxidase activation was an initiator in mitochondrial damage. Once mitochondria entered the feed-forward cycle, cell fate was no longer controlled by NADPH oxidase. Only antioxidants that targeted mitochondria such as MitoQ could break the cycle and release cells from death. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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