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Zhou R.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Zhou R.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou R.,Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Irradiation Medicine of Gansu Province | Zhang H.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | And 16 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2015

Aims Heavy ions have become potentially radiotherapeutic tools. However, studies of the effects on development of normal organs were limited. Using a zebrafish model, this study investigated the potential developmental toxicity and cell apoptosis rates in eyes exposed to carbon-ion irradiation. Main methods Zebrafish embryos at 12 h post-fertilization (hpf) were irradiated using 12C6 + ion beams at doses of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration was detected using the dichlorofluorescein-diacetate at 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Apoptosis was assessed by acridine orange staining at 24, 48, and 72 hpf and was also detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, at 72 hpf. The expression of genes governing apoptosis was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction at 24 hpf. Eye size was measured at 144 hpf. Key findings Ion irradiation with 12C6 + induced a significant increase in cell apoptosis at 24, 48 and 72 hpf. However, there was no significant increase in the ROS concentration at 24, 48, and 72 hpf. The proapoptotic genes, including P53, Bax, and Puma, were significantly upregulated. Two antiapoptotic genes, Mdm2 and Bcl-2, were significantly downregulated, and the expression levels of Capspase-9 and Caspase-3 were significantly increased. Microphthalmia was noted in the 8 Gy irradiated group. Significance These results suggested that carbon-ion irradiation induced apoptosis through the p53 pathway in zebrafish eyes independent of ROS generation. Irradiation at high doses may disrupt eye development of zebrafish embryos. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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