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Dong Z.,Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural | Dong Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Gu F.,Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural | Gu F.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Contents of four main odor components in Tonga, Comorin and Hainan vanilla, and antioxidant activity of vanilla extracts were compared. SPME-GC-MS was used to analyze the odor components in the three kinds of vanilla. The results indicate that, compared with the other two vanilla, Tonga vanilla contained the highest 4-hydroxy benzalde-hyde and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid content and owned similar vanillin content to Hainan vanilla, however Comorin vanilla had the highest content of vanillic acid. Tonga vanilla extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity, followed by Comorin vanilla and Hainan vanilla showed the lowest activity. 64, 65 and 71 components were indentified in Tonga Comorin and Hainan vanilla respectively, and in which 2,3-butanedione, acetic acid, 2-butanone 3-hydroxy, 2 3-butane-diol, furfural, phenol, phenol 4-methyl, phenol 2-methoxy and vanillin were with high content and changed according the variety of vanilla. Aromatic compounds with the highest contents in these three kinds of vanilla were the most important odor compounds in vanilla. ©, 2015, Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology. All right reserved. Source

Chen Y.-G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen Y.-G.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Gu F.-L.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Gu F.-L.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 8 more authors.
Current Microbiology | Year: 2015

A Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain XY18T, was isolated from a cured vanilla bean in Hainan province, China. Cells were rod-shaped, endospore producing, and peritrichous flagella. Strain XY18T grew at salinities of 0–8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally 1–4 %), pH 4.0–8.0 (optimally 5.0–7.0 %) and temperature range 20–45 °C (optimally 28–35 °C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, and iso-C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain XY18T was a member of the genus Bacillus, and closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535T and B. siamensis PD-A10T, with 99.1 and 99.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. However, the DNA–DNA hybridization value between strain XY18T and B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535T was 35.7 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain XY18T was 46.4 mol%, significantly differed from B. siamensis PD-A10T (41.4 %), which was higher than the range of 4 % indicative of species. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic study, including phenotypic features, chemotaxonomy, and phylogenetic analyses, strain XY18T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillusvanillea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY18T (=CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507). © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Qin X.-W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qin X.-W.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Hao C.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hao C.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 10 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2014

Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety- Two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray-Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was β-caryophyllene (15.05%-33.30%). Other identified compounds were β-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and α-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest. Source

Chen Y.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Chen Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen Y.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Gu F.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015

Vanilla beans were analyzed using biochemical methods, which revealed that glucovanillin disperses from the inner part to the outer part of the vanilla bean during the curing process and is simultaneously hydrolyzed by β-D-glucosidase. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to occur on the surface of the vanilla beans. Transcripts of the β-D-glucosidase gene (bgl) of colonizing microorganisms were detected. The results directly indicate that colonizing microorganisms are involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the colonizing microorganisms mainly belonged to the Bacillus genus. bgl was detected in all the isolates and presented clustering similar to that of the isolate taxonomy. Furthermore, inoculation of green fluorescent protein-tagged isolates showed that the Bacillus isolates can colonize vanilla beans. Glucovanillin was metabolized as the sole source of carbon in a culture of the isolates within 24 h. These isolates presented unique glucovanillin degradation capabilities. Vanillin was the major volatile compound in the culture. Other compounds, such as α-cubebene, β-pinene, and guaiacol, were detected in some isolate cultures. Colonizing Bacillus isolates were found to hydrolyze glucovanillin in culture, indirectly demonstrating the involvement of colonizing Bacillus isolates in glucovanillin hydrolysis during the vanilla curing process. Based on these results, we conclude that colonizing Bacillus isolates produce β-D-glucosidase, which mediates glucovanillin hydrolysis and influences flavor formation. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Hu L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hu L.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Hao C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hao C.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw reads, 44,061 unigenes with an average length of 1,345 nt were generated. During functional annotation, 40,537 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, Swiss-Prot database, and Nucleotide Collection (NR/NT) database. In addition, 8,196 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In a detailed analysis of the transcriptome, housekeeping genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction internal control, polymorphic SSRs, and lysine/ornithine metabolism-related genes were identified. These results validated the availability of our database. Our study could provide useful data for further research on piperine synthesis in black pepper. © 2015 Hu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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