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Qin X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qin X.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Lai J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tan L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2017

The volatile composition of cocoa from 16 accessions covering three different morphogenetic groups, namely, Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario, was investigated. Fifty-three compounds were profiled using HS-SPME-GC-MS, and the number of volatiles per accession was found to be significantly associated with the morphogenetic groups. Volatile assemblages differed significantly among Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario groups (ANOSIM, R = 0.715, p = 0.001). The differences in the volatile compounds of the three morphogenetic groups were essentially quantitative, and only a few compounds were found exclusively specific to a certain group, mainly in Trinitario. Moreover, the volatile compounds differed from these morphogenetic groups, which revealed complex interactions between them, including participation in the same biosynthetic pathways. Principal component analysis revealed that Trinitario cocoa had high contents of furfuryl alcohol, 3-carene, 2-pentanol, 1-pentanol, 2,3-butanediol, 2-heptanol, and benzyl acetate. Criollo cocoa contained high amounts of α-limonene, β-caryophyllene, β-myrcene, α-phellandrene, β-linalool, and acetic acid. Forastero cocoa also exhibited high contents of 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol, anethole, and 2,4-pentanediol. However, the volatile compound pattern detected in Forastero cocoa was inconsistent. Volatile profiling of cocoa by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Dong W.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Dong W.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Zhao J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhao J.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

Electronic nose and tongue sensors and chemometric multivariate analysis were applied to characterize and classify 7 Chinese robusta coffee cultivars with different roasting degrees. Analytical data were obtained from 126 samples of roasted coffee beans distributed in the Hainan Province of China. Physicochemical qualities, such as the pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), total solids (TS), and TSS/TA ratio, were determined by wet chemistry methods. Data fusion strategies were investigated to improve the performance of models relative to the performance of a single technique. Clear classification of all the studied coffee samples was achieved by principal component analysis, K-nearest neighbour analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and a back-propagation artificial neural network. Quantitative models were established between the sensor responses and the reference physicochemical qualities, using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The PLSR model with a fusion data set was considered the best model for determining the quality parameters. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Gu F.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Gu F.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Xu F.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Xu F.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 8 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

Vanillin was extracted from vanilla beans using pretreatment with cellulase to produce enzymatic hydrolysis, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the processing parameters of this extraction. The effects of heating time, enzyme quantity and temperature on enzymatic extraction of vanillin were evaluated. Extraction yield (mg/g) was used as the response value. The results revealed that the increase in heating time and the increase in enzyme quantity (within certain ranges) were associated with an enhancement of extraction yield, and that the optimal conditions for vanillin extraction were: Heating time 6 h, temperature 60 °C and enzyme quantity 33.5 mL. Calculated from the final polynomial functions, the optimal response of vanillin extraction yield was 7.62 mg/g. The predicted results for optimal reaction conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.


Chen Y.-G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen Y.-G.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Gu F.-L.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Gu F.-L.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 8 more authors.
Current Microbiology | Year: 2015

A Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain XY18T, was isolated from a cured vanilla bean in Hainan province, China. Cells were rod-shaped, endospore producing, and peritrichous flagella. Strain XY18T grew at salinities of 0–8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally 1–4 %), pH 4.0–8.0 (optimally 5.0–7.0 %) and temperature range 20–45 °C (optimally 28–35 °C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, and iso-C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain XY18T was a member of the genus Bacillus, and closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535T and B. siamensis PD-A10T, with 99.1 and 99.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. However, the DNA–DNA hybridization value between strain XY18T and B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535T was 35.7 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain XY18T was 46.4 mol%, significantly differed from B. siamensis PD-A10T (41.4 %), which was higher than the range of 4 % indicative of species. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic study, including phenotypic features, chemotaxonomy, and phylogenetic analyses, strain XY18T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillusvanillea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY18T (=CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507). © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Gu F.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Gu F.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Tan L.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Tan L.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100 °C than at 90 and 80 °C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100 °C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dong Z.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Dong Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Dong Z.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Gu F.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest Radj2 was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters Ceq, k1, k2, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen Y.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | Chen Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen Y.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Gu F.,Spice and Beverage Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015

Vanilla beans were analyzed using biochemical methods, which revealed that glucovanillin disperses from the inner part to the outer part of the vanilla bean during the curing process and is simultaneously hydrolyzed by β-D-glucosidase. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to occur on the surface of the vanilla beans. Transcripts of the β-D-glucosidase gene (bgl) of colonizing microorganisms were detected. The results directly indicate that colonizing microorganisms are involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the colonizing microorganisms mainly belonged to the Bacillus genus. bgl was detected in all the isolates and presented clustering similar to that of the isolate taxonomy. Furthermore, inoculation of green fluorescent protein-tagged isolates showed that the Bacillus isolates can colonize vanilla beans. Glucovanillin was metabolized as the sole source of carbon in a culture of the isolates within 24 h. These isolates presented unique glucovanillin degradation capabilities. Vanillin was the major volatile compound in the culture. Other compounds, such as α-cubebene, β-pinene, and guaiacol, were detected in some isolate cultures. Colonizing Bacillus isolates were found to hydrolyze glucovanillin in culture, indirectly demonstrating the involvement of colonizing Bacillus isolates in glucovanillin hydrolysis during the vanilla curing process. Based on these results, we conclude that colonizing Bacillus isolates produce β-D-glucosidase, which mediates glucovanillin hydrolysis and influences flavor formation. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.


Qin X.-W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qin X.-W.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Hao C.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hao C.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | And 10 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2014

Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety- Two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray-Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was β-caryophyllene (15.05%-33.30%). Other identified compounds were β-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and α-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest.


Li F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li F.,Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops | Li F.,Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement | Wu B.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 17 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

In this study, we performed cloning and expression analysis of six putative sucrose transporter genes, designated TcSUT1, TcSUT2, TcSUT3, TcSUT4, TcSUT5 and TcSUT6, from the cacao genotype 'TAS-R8'. The combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the cacao SUT genes contained exon numbers ranging from 1 to 14. The average molecular mass of all six deduced proteins was approximately 56. kDa (range 52 to 66. kDa). All six proteins were predicted to exhibit typical features of sucrose transporters with 12 trans-membrane spanning domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TcSUT2 and TcSUT4 belonged to Group 2 SUT and Group 4 SUT, respectively, and the other TcSUT proteins were belonging to Group 1 SUT. Real-time PCR was conducted to investigate the expression pattern of each member of the SUT family in cacao. Our experiment showed that TcSUT1 was expressed dominantly in pods and that, TcSUT3 and TcSUT4 were highly expressed in both pods and in bark with phloem. Within pods, TcSUT1 and TcSUT4 were expressed more in the seed coat and seed from the pod enlargement stage to the ripening stage. TcSUT5 expression sharply increased to its highest expression level in the seed coat during the ripening stage. Expression pattern analysis indicated that TcSUT genes may be associated with photoassimilate transport into developing seeds and may, therefore, have an impact on seed production. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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