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Hu J.,Shanghai Ocean University | Guo T.,Shanghai Ocean University | Pan W.-Q.,Shanghai Ocean University | Gan T.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility | Year: 2016

Unc45 myosin chaperone b(unc45b)gene is a molecular chaperone that mediates the folding, assembly and accumulation of thick-filament myosin in the formation of sarcomere, which plays an important role in the development of striated muscle and the stability of sarcomere. In this study, the complete cDNA sequence of unc45b gene of grass carp was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and the characteristics of the unc45b protein predicted from gene sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The differential expression pattern in tissues was also detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the full-length of unc45b gene of grass carp is 3163 bp, which contains a 60 bp 5′UTR, a 298 bp 3′UTR, and a 2865 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 934 amino acid peptide. The deduced unc45b protein exhibits a homology of 92, 86, 86 % with the protein of zebrafish (Danio rerio), channel catfish (Ietalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) respectively, and the protein contains UCS myosin head binding domain and TPR peptide repeat domain. The protein is a hydrophilic and non-secretory protein with a molecular mass and isoeletronic point of 103,699.8 and 7.39 Da. The structural elements of the protein includes α-helixes and loops, and the unc45b gene highly expresses in skeletal muscle and heart in grass carp. This study laid a foundation for further research in explaining the myofibril accumulation in crisped grass carp. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Wei L.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Huang X.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Huang X.,Shanghai Ocean University | Huang Z.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Zhou Z.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

In order to improve the property of Nannochloropsis oculata as biodiesel feedstock, a L9(34) orthogonal test on limited nitrogen supplementation (0, 0.22 and 0.44mmolNL-1), high iron concentration (1.2×10-2, 1.2×10-1 and 1.2mmolFeL-1) and culture temperature (10, 20 and 30°C) was conducted to select the most effective combinational measurement. Results showed that microalgae displayed the highest total lipid content (60.44±0.68%), the highest neutral lipid proportion (90.74±0.18%), the highest lipid yield (152.70±7.40mgL-1) and the largest cetane number (CN, 64.34±0.13) under different combined conditions. There were significant interaction among nitrogen supplementation, iron concentration and culture temperature on the lipid yield and CN of N. oculata. Nitrogen supplementation, followed by iron concentration and temperature orderly, was the most influential factor in lipid yield. It is therefore suggested that the combination of 0.44mmolNL-1, 1.2×10-1mmolFeL-1 and 20°C was the best measurement for improving the property of N. oculata as biodiesel feedstock. © 2013.

Cao H.,Shanghai Ocean University | Cao H.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Long X.,Shanghai Ocean University | Lu L.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 4 more authors.
Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh | Year: 2016

Tail rot disease causes significant economic damage in freshwater farmed Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, yet information on Citrobacter freundii as a possible causal agent for this disease is scarce. In this study, a virulent strain, temporarily named MINA, was isolated from diseased A. japonica suffering from tail rot disease. It was identified through phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characteristics and thus compared to other known isolates. Isolate MINA has developed multiple resistances to penicillin, quinolones and sulfonamide antibiotics as well as to amide alcohols, cephalosporin, glycopeptide and macrolide drugs used in aquaculture when screened against a range of common antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tail rot disease caused by C. freundii in freshwater farmed A. japonica. © 2016, Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh. All rights reserved.

Wang X.-F.,Shanghai Ocean University | Li X.-Q.,Shanghai Ocean University | Li X.-Q.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Leng X.-J.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing cottonseed meal (CM) levels of 0, 9, 18, 27, 36, 45 and 54% (with the free gossypol (FG) levels of 0, 107.8, 215.7, 323.5, 431.3, 539.2 and 647.0mgkg-1, respectively) were fed to juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with initial body weight of 11.3g for 8weeks to evaluate the effects of dietary CM on growth performance, hematological indices, liver and gonad histology. When the dietary CM level ranged from 0% to 27%, the weight gain (WG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed no significant difference among groups (P>0.05), but when the CM level increased from 27% to 54%, the WG and protein efficiency ratio (PER) significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the FCR significantly increased (P<0.05). The amount of red blood cells (RBC) and the hematocrit (Hct) value were significantly higher in the groups of 27-54% CM compared to the groups of 0-18% CM (P<0.05), but the hemoglobin (Hb) level showed relative stability in the groups of 0-45% CM, then significantly decreased when the CM level reached 54%. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and hydroxyl radicals were significantly increased for fish fed diets containing 45-54% CM compared with fish fed diets containing 0-36% CM (P<0.05). The free gossypol concentrations in muscle and liver corresponded to the dietary CM levels. There were no significant differences in the gonad index of both sexes among groups (P>0.05). Compared with the groups of 0% and 27% CM, the hepatocyte volume decreased, and the number of hepatocytes increased in the group of 54% CM, which also demonstrated the higher number of primary spermatocytes and the fewer sperm cells in the testis. Taken together, these results indicated that a safe level of CM in the juvenile carp diet was 27% (FG of 323.5mgkg-1) and broken-line model analysis based on WG showed the upper level of CM was 26.85%. The dietary cottonseed meals higher than 36% (431.3mgkg-1 FG) may damage growth performance and hematology. Furthermore, high levels of dietary CM (54% CM with FG of 647.0mgkg-1) may slightly impair the liver and decrease the number of sperm cells. © 2014 .

Yang J.-L.,Shanghai Ocean University | Yang J.-L.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Li X.,Shanghai Ocean University | Liang X.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

The effect of natural biofilms on settlement of plantigrades of Mytilus coruscus was investigated in the laboratory. Plantigrades settled in response to natural biofilms, and the percentages of plantigrade settlement increased with biofilm age. The settlement-inducing activity of biofilms was positively correlated with age-related characteristics of the biofilm, such as dry weight, thickness, chlorophyll a concentration and densities of bacteria and diatoms. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed high similarity between bacterial communities in biofilms according to biofilm age, indicating that bacterial community structure may not play an important role in settlement of plantigrades in this species. Therefore, natural biofilms may be used to enhance settlement of plantigrades for the Chinese aquaculture industry. © 2014.

Yang J.-L.,Shanghai Ocean University | Yang J.-L.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Li W.-S.,Shanghai Ocean University | Liang X.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

The metamorphosis responses of mussel (Mytilus coruscus) larvae to adrenoceptor compounds were investigated through a series of bioassays. The adrenergic agonist, epinephrine, as a positive control, exhibited significant inducing activity. Phenylephrine and clonidine induced larval metamorphosis at 10-6 to 10-4M concentrations in both 24-h and continuous exposure assays. Dobutamine induced larval metamorphosis at 10-5M in the 24-h exposure assays, and the percentage of larval metamorphosis was very low (<5%). Methoxyphenamine exhibited inducing activity at 10-4M in the continuous exposure assays, and the percentage of larval metamorphosis was 8%. No larval mortality was observed for these five agonists at all concentrations tested. Among these antagonists, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist chlorpromazine and amitriptyline showed by far the most promising inhibiting effects, indicating that G-protein-coupled α1-adrenoceptors may be involved in the process of larval metamorphosis in M. coruscus. The α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan also inhibited the larval metamorphosis of M. coruscus, indicating that larval metamorphosis may also be mediated by G-protein-coupled α2-adrenoceptors. Atenolol and butoxamine also inhibited larval metamorphosis induction by epinephrine. Thus, these adrenergic agonists can be used as non-toxic and promising inducers of larval metamorphosis in this species, and to improve M. coruscus larval production for aquaculture. The present study provides a novel insight into the mechanism modulating the metamorphosis of larvae of the mussel M. coruscus. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Wei L.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Huang X.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Huang X.,Shanghai Ocean University | Huang Z.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2014

Microalgae Tetraselmis subcordiformis and Nannochloropsis oculata were cultured at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C and their properties as potential biofuel resources were examined. The results indicate that T. subcordiformis and N. oculata grew best at 20°C and 25°C and yielded the highest total lipids at 20°C and 30°C, respectively. With increased temperature, neutral lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) decreased while saturated FAs increased, accompanied by increased monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) in T. subcordiformis and decreased MUFAs in N. oculata; meanwhile, the predicted cetane number of FA methyl esters increased from 45.3 to 47.6 in T. subcordiformis and from 52.3 to 60.3 in N. oculata. Therefore, optimizing culture temperatures is important for improving microalgal biodiesel production. © 2015, Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ma F.,Shanghai Ocean University | Li X.Q.,Shanghai Ocean University | Li B.A.,Shanghai Ocean University | Leng X.J.,Shanghai Ocean University | Leng X.J.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of extruded diets and pelleted diets with varying dietary lipid levels on growth performance and nutrient utilization of tilapia. Six diets, containing three levels of lipid at 40, 60 or 80 g kg-1 (with the supplemental lipid of 0, 20 or 40 g kg-1, respectively), were prepared by extruding or pelleting and then fed to tilapia juveniles (8.0 ± 0.1 g) in cages (in indoor pools) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that the fish that were fed the diet with 60 g kg-1 of lipid had a higher weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), lipid retention (LRE), energy retention (ERE), apparent protein digestibility, apparent dry matter digestibility and a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those fed the diet with 40 g kg-1 lipid in both the extruded diet and pelleted diet (P < 0.05). As the dietary lipid level increased from 60 to 80 g kg-1, these parameters were not further improved, even digestibilities of the crude protein and dry matter decreased (P < 0.05). With the dietary lipid level increased, whole-body lipid content significantly increased (P < 0.05), serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) tended to increase (P > 0.05), whereas whole-body protein content, serum triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C/LDL-C tended to decrease (P > 0.05). Fish fed with the extruded diets had a higher WG, SGR, hepatosomatic index (HSI), PER, protein retention (PRE), LRE, ERE, TG, apparent digestibility of protein and dry matter, as well as a lower FCR, than those fed with the pelleted diets at the same dietary lipid level (P < 0.05). These results suggested that tilapia fed with the extruded diets had a better growth and higher nutrient utilization than fish fed with the pelleted diets, when dietary lipid level ranged from 40 to 80 g kg-1 and at dietary crude protein level was 280 g kg-1. The optimum dietary lipid level was 60 g kg-1 in both the pelleted and extruded diets, and extrusion did not affect dietary lipid requirement of the tilapia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Shi Z.,Shanghai Ocean University | Li X.-Q.,Shanghai Ocean University | Chowdhury M.A.K.,JEFO Nutrition Inc. | Chen J.-N.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous protease supplementation in low fish meal pelleted and extruded diets on growth, nutrient retention and digestibility, and serum biochemical indices of gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. A high-fish meal (HF) diet containing 90 g/kg fish meal and a low-fish meal (LF) diet containing 30 g/kg fish meal (60 g/kg fish meal was isonitrogenously replaced by soybean meal) were designed as the positive and negative control diet, and 125, 150 and 175 mg/kg exogenous protease were supplemented in the LF diet, respectively. The five formulas were then processed with pelleting and extruding, respectively, to obtain ten diets. After the pelleting and extruding, the retention rate of the protease activity was 77.98% and 37.65%, respectively. The diets were fed to gibel carp with an initial body weight of 35.0 ± 0.2 g for 12 weeks. In pelleted diets, the supplementation of 150 and 175 mg/kg protease in LF diet significantly improved weight gain, nutrient apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter and crude protein), nutrient retention (crude protein and crude lipid) and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) when compared to negative control (P < 0.05), and showed the similar values as the positive control (HF group). In extruded diets, despite no significant differences in growth, nutrient digestibility and retention among treatments, fish fed diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg protease showed numerically higher values than fish fed the negative control diet (P < 0.10). When comparing the extruded diets and the pelleted diets, fish fed extruded diets had significantly higher body lipid level and lipid retention than fish fed pelleted diets, and the fish fed extruded diets except the HF diet showed the significantly higher protein retention than fish fed pelleted diets with the same formulation, respectively. There were no significant differences in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and glucose levels among all groups, and no significant differences in serum total protein and albumin levels among groups except the extruded HF group. The above results showed that the supplementation of 150-175 mg/kg protease in pelleted LF diet, but not in extruded LF diet, could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nutrient retention of gibel carp when compared to the LF diet without protease. Statement of relevance: The present study showed that supplementing exogenous protease to pelleted diet containing 30 g/kg fish meal, but not to the extruded diet, could improve the growth, apparent digestibilities of dry matter and crude protein, and retention of protein and lipid for gibel carp. The above results will guide the proper application of protease in fish diet. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Hu M.,Shanghai Ocean University | Hu M.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources | Yang L.,Shanghai Ocean University | Liu Q.,Shanghai Ocean University | Liu Q.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fishery Germplasm Resources
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2014

The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton communities in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Xin'anjiang Reservoir, Zhejiang, China, were investigated monthly, between 2009 and 2010. Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) dominated the pelagic fish community of this large, deep reservoir. Cladocerans were distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. Rotifers were mainly found in the upper reaches, while copepods tended to assemble in the lower reaches. The Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression were used to identify the major physicochemical gradients influencing community variations. Zooplankton community distributions were influenced by water temperature, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and silicon. Excess nutrients, in particular silicon, stimulated rotifer growth. Based on these findings, it is possible to use rotifer density as a bioindicator of eutrophic status in deep reservoir ecosystems. © 2014 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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