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Liu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wen Y.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Hu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of General Virology

Members of the genus Vesiculovirus, which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, can cause great economic loss in fish culture. In the present report, a vesiculovirus [named snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV)] was isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead fish. SHVV shared 94% nucleotide sequence identity at the genomic level with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV), which infects mandarin fish (S. chuatsi). We showed that SHVV was able to replicate and proliferate well in SSN-1 cells, which originate from striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus). Furthermore, mandarin fish was susceptible to SHVV by bath exposure, as well as by intraperitoneal injection. The infected fish showed typical clinical signs of rhabdovirus infection, including haemorrhage and oedema. Histopathological analysis revealed that extensive inflammation and necrosis were observed in the spleen, kidney, liver, heart and brain of the moribund mandarin fish. These results will shed new light on the epidemic of vesiculovirus infections among fish. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Zou M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zou M.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding | Guo B.,University of Helsinki | Ma X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ma X.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding

The identification of genes that may be responsible for the divergence of closely related species is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. The species of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae diverged less than 8. million. years ago, and the morphological differences among these species are great. However, the genetic basis of their divergence remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the transcriptome of one endemic East Asian cyprinid - the yellow-cheek carp Elopichthys bambusa. A comparison with the publicly available transcriptomes of other endemic East Asian cyprinids, including the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and blunt-nose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), revealed a number of candidate adaptive genes in each species, such as zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 in E. bambusa and zebrafish vitelline envelope protein in M. amblycephala. An enrichment test showed the enrichment of some specific gene ontology (GO) terms for these putatively adaptive genes. Taken together, our work is the first step toward elucidating the genes that may be related to the divergence of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae, and these genes identified as being probably under positive selection should be good candidates for subsequent evolutionary and functional studies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 14 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a significant role in immune responses. Much work on MRC1 has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this study, we cloned and characterized MRC1 in grass carp (gcMR). The full-length gcMR contained 5291. bp encoding a putative protein of 1432 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that gcMR contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich (CR) domain, a fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic domain. gcMR were constitutively expressed in different organs with the higher expression in spleen and head kidney. During embryonic development, gcMR transcript levels were highest at cleavage stage. The up-regulation expression of gcMR, IL-1β and TNF-α in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection indicating it involved in innate immune regulation during bacterial infections. © 2013 . Source

Liu Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding | Jia L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang M.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases

A Thelohanellus species was encountered during a survey on Thelohanellus diversity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in China. The infection is characterized by the presence of large cysts of 1.4-3.2 cm in diameter in the skin of host. Mature spores were ampullaceous in frontal view and testudinate in lateral view, measuring 19.7 ± 0.7 (18.6-20.8) μm long, 7.6 ± 0.4 (6.6-8.4) μm wide and 7.3 ± 0.5 (6.6-8.8) μm thick. The single polar capsule was elongated pyriform, with 11.1 ± 0.5 (10.0-11.9) μm long and 5.3 ± 0.3 (4.3-5.8) μm wide. Polar filaments coiled with 7-8 turns. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth spore surface with flat side and convex side. The sutural line was straight or 'S' like, running near the middle of the valves. Histologically, the large cysts consisting of numerous small plasmodia developed in the dermis of the skin. The BLAST search indicated that the newly obtained ssrRNA gene sequences did not match any available sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis placed it in the Thelohanellus clade. Based on morphology and molecular differences with reported Thelohanellus spp., this parasite was described as a new species of genus Thelohanellus. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Liu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu L.,Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding | Li Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lin L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology

Spring viremia of carp (SVC), caused by spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is an important disease due to its drastic effects on carp fisheries in many countries. To better understand molecular responses to SVCV infection, two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF were performed to investigate altered proteins in epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells (EPCs). Differentially expressed proteins in mock-infected EPCs and SVCV-infected EPCs were compared. A total of 54 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified (33 up-regulated spots and 21 down-regulated spots) which include cytoskeleton proteins, macromolecular biosynthesis-associated proteins, stress response proteins, signal transduction proteins, energy metabolism, and ubiquitin proteasome pathway-associated proteins. Moreover, 7 corresponding genes of the differentially expressed proteins were quantified using real time RT-PCR to examine their transcriptional profiles. The presence of four selected cellular proteins (beta-actin, gamma1-actin, heat shock cognate 71kDa protein and annexin A2) associated with the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) particles was validated by Western blot assay. This study provides dynamic and useful protein-related information to further understand the underlying pathogenesis of SVCV infection. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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