Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base

Nanjing, China

Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base

Nanjing, China
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Lv W.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lv W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lv W.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Yang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

Cd (cadmium) stress always alters the homeostasis of ROS (reactive oxygen species) including H2 O2 (hydrogen sulfide) and [Formula Present] (superoxide radical), leading to the oxidative injury and growth inhibition in plants. In addition to triggering oxidative injury, ROS has been suggested as important regulators modulating root elongation. However, whether and how Cd stress induces the inhibition of root elongation by differentially regulating endogenous H2 O2 and [Formula Present], rather than by inducing oxidative injury, remains elusive. To address these gaps, histochemical, physiological, and biochemical approaches were applied to investigate the mechanism for Cd to fine-tune the balance between H2 O2 and [Formula Present] in the root tip of Brassica rapa. Treatment with Cd at 4 and 16 µM significantly inhibited root elongation, while only 16 µM but not 4 µM of Cd induced oxidative injury and cell death in root tip. Fluorescent and pharmaceutical tests suggested that H2 O2 and [Formula Present] played negative and positive roles, respectively, in the regulation of root elongation in the presence of Cd (4 µM) or not. Treatment with Cd at 4 µM led to the increase in H2 O2 and the decrease in [Formula Present] in root tip, which may be attributed to the up-regulation of Br_UPB1s and the down-regulation of their predicted targets (four peroxidase genes). Cd at 4 µM resulted in the increase in endogenous H2 S in root tip by inducing the up-regulation of LCDs and DCDs. Treatment with H2 S biosynthesis inhibitor or H2 S scavenger significantly blocked Cd (4 µM)-induced increase in endogenous H2 S level, coinciding with the recovery of root elongation, the altered balance between H2 O2 and [Formula Present], and the expression of Br_UPB1s and two peroxidase genes. Taken together, it can be proposed that endogenous H2 S mediated the phytotoxicity of Cd at low concentration by regulating Br_UPB1s-modulated balance between H2 O2 and [Formula Present] in root tip. Such findings shed new light on the regulatory role of endogenous H2 S in plant adaptions to Cd stress. © 2017 Lv, Yang, Xu, Shi, Shao, Xian and Chen.


Li Y.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Li Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Long L.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ge J.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | And 8 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in agricultural soils are likely to threaten human health and ecosystem though the food chain, therefore, it is worth to pay more attention to soil contamination by PAHs. In this study, the presence, distribution and risk assessment of 16 priority PAHs in rice-wheat continuous cropping soils close to industrial parks of Suzhou were firstly investigated. The concentrations of the total PAHs ranged from 125.99 ng/g to 796.65 ng/g with an average of 352.94 ng/g. Phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLT), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA) and pyrene (PYR) were the major PAHs in those soil samples. The highest level of PAHs was detected in the soils around Chemical plant and Steelworks, followed by Printed wire board, Electroplate Factory and Paper mill. The composition of PAHs in the soils around Chemical plant was dominated by 3-ring PAHs, however, the predominant compounds were 4, 5-ring PAHs in the soils around other four factories. Meanwhile, the concentration of the total PAHs in the soils close to the factories showed a higher level of PAHs in November (during rice harvest) than that in June (during wheat harvest). Different with other rings of PAHs, 3-ring PAHs in the soils around Chemical plant and Steelworks had a higher concentration in June. The results of principal component analysis and isomeric ratio analysis suggested that PAHs in the studied areas mainly originated from biomass, coal and petroleum combustion. The risk assessment indicated that higher carcinogenic risk was found in those sites closer to the industrial park. © 2017


Gao Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao Y.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Zhang Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu X.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2016

Small and shallow water bodies often exhibit high rates of biogeochemical activities, yet have not received much attention. Here we test the hypothesis that there is strong diurnal stratification of physicochemical characteristics in a hyper-eutrophic pond, which would lead to a heterogeneous distribution of gas production via biological processes along vertical profile of water column. Accordingly, we focused on quantifying the seasonal and diurnal dynamics of nutrients (NO3 -, NH4+, total dissolved nitrogen TDN, PO4 3-, total dissolved phosphorus TDP), physicochemical environment factors (DO, pH, light intensity, Chlorophyll-a) and gas emission (N2, N2O, O2, CH4) in the vertical profile of an ultra-eutrophic pond located at the subtropical climate zone, China. The strong and persistent stratification of several parameters at the resolution of centimeters along vertical profile of water was observed in summer and autumn. Interestingly, the surface water and sediment-water interface produced much more gas than the middle layers of water column. The quantity and composition of gas collected from the surface water were greatly affected by O2 production, which followed the diurnal cycle of sunlight intensity. Other biological processes, e.g. nitrification and/or denitrification, may also have contributed to the heterogeneous gas production as high N2 and N2O fluxes were detected in the surface layer and sediment-water interface. CH4 production was mainly from the sediment-water interface, especially in summer when the bottom layer developed very low DO concentrations due to strong stratification. Our results demonstrate that besides the unexpectedly long and strong thermal and physicochemical stratification, the shallow eutrophic pond can undergo significant vertical heterogeneity of gas emission due to the strong diurnal stratification of these physicochemical parameters. © 2015.


Gao T.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao T.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Gao T.,Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro product Safety and Quality | Zhou H.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2016

Thymol is a natural plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmaceutical and food preservation applications. However, the antifungal mechanism for thymol against phytopathogens remains unclear. In this study, we identified the antifungal action of thymol against Fusarium graminearum, an economically important phytopathogen showing severe resistance to traditional chemical fungicides. The sensitivity of thymol on different F. graminearum isolates was screened. The hyphal growth, as well as conidial production and germination, were quantified under thymol treatment. Histochemical, microscopic, and biochemical approaches were applied to investigate thymol-induced cell membrane damage. The average EC50 value of thymol for 59 F. graminearum isolates was 26.3 μg·mL-1. Thymol strongly inhibited conidial production and hyphal growth. Thymol-induced cell membrane damage was indicated by propidium iodide (PI) staining, morphological observation, relative conductivity, and glycerol measurement. Thymol induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and a remarkable decrease in ergosterol content. Taken together, thymol showed potential antifungal activity against F. graminearum due to the cell membrane damage originating from lipid peroxidation and the disturbance of ergosterol biosynthesis. These results not only shed new light on the antifungal mechanism of thymol, but also imply a promising alternative for the control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease caused by F. graminearum. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI.


Ye X.,Henan Agricultural University | Ling T.,Henan Agricultural University | Xue Y.,Nanjing Yangzi Modern Agriculture Investment and Development Co. | Xu C.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2016

Thymol is a famous plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmacy due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, the modulation of intrinsic plant physiology by thymol remains unclear. It is a significant challenge to confer plant tolerance to Cd (cadmium) stress. In the present study physiological, histochemical, and biochemical methods were applied to investigate thymol-induced Cd tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. Thymol was able to alleviate Cd-induced growth inhibition of tobacco seedlings in both dose-And time-dependent manners. Both histochemical detection and in-Tube assays suggested that thymol treatment blocked Cd-induced over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and loss of membrane integrity in both leaves and roots. Thymol decreased Cd-induced cell death that was indicated in vivo by propidium iodide (PI) and trypan blue, respectively. Thymol stimulated glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis by upregulating the expression of -glutamylcysteine synthetase 1 (GSH1) in Cd-Treated seedlings, which may contribute to the alleviation of Cd-induced oxidative injury. In situ fluorescent detection of intracellular Cd2+ revealed that thymol significantly decreased free Cd2+ in roots, which could be explained by the thymol-stimulated GSH biosynthesis and upregulation of the expression of phyochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1). Taken together, these results suggested that thymol has great potential to trigger plant resistant responses to combat heavy metal toxicity, which may help our understanding of the mechanism for thymol-modulated cell metabolic pathways in response to environmental stimuli.


Zhang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Liu Y.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Zhang C.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

Single chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) is capable of binding its target antigens and is one of the most popular recombinant antibodies format for many applications. In this study, a large human synthetic phage displayed library (Tomlinson J) was employed to generate scFvs against Cry1B toxin by affinity panning. After four rounds of panning, six monoclonal phage particles capable of binding with the Cry1B were isolated, sequenced and characterized by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Two of the identified novel anti-Cry1B scFvs, namely H9 and B12, were expressed in Escherichia coli HB2151 and purified by Ni metal ion affinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the relative molecular mass of scFv was estimated at 30kDa. The purified scFv-H9 was used to develop an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) for Cry1B toxin. The linear range of detection for standards in this ic-ELISA was approximately 0.19-1.1μgmL-1 and 50% inhibition of control (IC50) was 0.84μgmL-1 for Cry1B. The affinity of scfv-H9 was (1.95±0.12)×107M-1 and showed cross-reactivity with Cry1Ab toxin and Cry1Ac toxin (8.53% and 7.58%, respectively), higher cross-reactivity (12.8%) with Cry1C toxin. The average recoveries of Cry1B toxin from spiked leaf and rice samples were in the range 89.5-96.4%, and 88.5-95.6%, respectively, with a coefficient of variation (C.V) less than 6.0%. These results showed promising applications of scfv-H9 for detecting Cry1B toxin in agricultural and environmental samples. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Qiu J.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Xu J.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Shi J.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) cause Fusarium head blight in small cereal grains all over the world. To determine the species and trichothecene chemotype composition and population structure of FGSC in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, an area where epidemics occur regularly, 891 isolates were collected in two consecutive years (2011 and 2012) and characterized with species- and chemotype-specific polymerase chain reaction. Of the 891 isolates typed, 83 were F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) and 808 were F. asiaticum. All 83 F. graminearum s. str. isolates were of a 3ADON (26.51 %) or 15ADON (73.49 %) type, while F. asiaticum isolates included 696 3ADON producers, 46 15ADON producers, and 66 NIV producers. Eight variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers were tested on a representative 384 F. asiaticum isolates from 55 sampling sites. VNTR analysis showed high gene diversity and genotypic diversity but low linkage disequilibrium in both populations Fg2011 and Fg2012 grouped based on the year of collection. Low genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.026) and high gene flow (N m = 15.13) was observed between the two populations and among subpopulations within the same population (N m = 3.53 to 48.37), indicating that few influence of temporal and spatial variations on population differentiation in this area. Similar result was obtained from 3ADON, 15ADON and NIV populations or carbendazim resistant and sensitive populations, indicating that chemotype of Fusarium isolates and carbendazim application had minor influence on population subdivision. © 2014 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Wang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Zhang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | And 4 more authors.
Toxicon | Year: 2012

As bioinsecticides Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1C δ-endotoxins also have been used in genetically modified crops worldwide since last century. In this study, single chain variable fragments (scFvs), which could specifically recognize and detect Cry1C in food samples, were isolated from naive phage displayed human antibody libraries (Tomlinson I + J) by iterative affinity selection procedure instead of immunization process. With increasing selection pressure, after four rounds of panning, three individual scFvs were obtained and sequenced. The antibodies were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thereafter, a conformed novel anti-Cry1C scFv, namely scFv-H6, was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) HB2151 and purified by Ni metal ion affinity chromatography. An indirect competitive ELISA assay (ic-ELISA) of scFv-H6 was developed for the determination of Cry1C toxin in the range from 0.023 μg mL-1 to 4.35 μg mL-1, and 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.39 μg mL-1. This approach showed ignorable cross-reactivity with toxin Cry1Ac and Cry1B (3.51% and 7.28%, respectively). This ic-ELISA approach was exploited for the determination of Cry1C in spiked ground rice samples with a mean recovery rate of 92.5% and coefficient of variation (C.V.) less than 5.0%. This study proves that phage display libraries provide a valuable system for the low-cost, rapid and continuous generation of specific antibody fragments directed against toxin targets and develop a simple detection method. Our results show that anti-Cry1C scFv could be a valuable tool for detection of Cry1C in food and agricultural samples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gao T.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao T.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Gao T.,Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro product Safety and Quality | Chen J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is an important mitochondrial enzyme that blocks the production of acetyl-CoA by selectively inhibiting the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) through phosphorylation. PDK is an effectively therapeutic target in cancer cells, but the physiological roles of PDK in phytopathogens are largely unknown. To address these gaps, a PDK gene (FgPDK1) was isolated from Fusarium graminearum that is an economically important pathogen infecting cereals. The deletion of FgPDK1 in F. graminearum resulted in the increase in PDH activity, coinciding with several phenotypic defects, such as growth retardation, failure in perithecia and conidia production, and increase in pigment formation. The ΔFgPDK1 mutants showed enhanced sensitivity to osmotic stress and cell membrane-damaging agent. Physiological detection indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and plasma membrane damage (indicated by PI staining, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage) occurred in ΔFgPDK1 mutants. The deletion of FgPDK1 also prohibited the production of deoxynivalenol (DON) and pathogenicity of F. graminearum, which may resulted from the decrease in the expression of Tri6. Taken together, this study firstly identified the vital roles of FgPDK1 in the development of phytopathogen F. graminearum, which may provide a potentially novel clue for target-directed development of agricultural fungicides. © 2016 Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Cao Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Cao Y.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Wang J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu H.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2016

The rapid development of biogas production will result in increased use of biogas slurry (BS) as organic fertilizer. However, side effects such as suppression of soilborne diseases are not yet well investigated and understood. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of biogas slurry application on suppression of Fusarium wilt disease of watermelon and its relationship with soil chemical and microbiological properties. Pot and field experiments were conducted to compare effects of biogas slurry application on Fusarium wilt disease suppression of watermelon in soil with a moisture content of 60% water holding capacity (WHC) or flooded continuously. Fusarium wilt was significantly suppressed in soil from biogas slurry amended plots. Biogas slurry flooding enhanced the degree of suppression in the pot experiment. Moreover, the biogas slurry treatment also significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt in the field with a disease index of 33.2% compared with 69.6% in water treatment. Biogas slurry strongly reduced the pathogen population in rhizosphere soil. The populations were decreased by 43.1% and 95.9% in the biogas slurry moist and flooding treatments, respectively. Biolog data indicated that average well color development (AWCD) and Shannon-weaver index were increased significantly in biogas flooding treatment. Principal component analysis showed that Fusarium wilt was negatively correlated with NH4 +-N, available K (AK), water-soluble carbon (DOC), water soluble nitrogen (DON) and phenolic acid (PA) contents in soil and positively correlated to soil pH and soil redox potential (Eh). Microbial communities, in general, did not significantly correlate with disease suppression. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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