Xu S.-Q.,China Agricultural University |
Xu S.-Q.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
Zhang M.-Y.,China Agricultural University |
Zhang M.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
And 6 more authors.
Pedosphere | Year: 2013
Tillage practices can potentially affect soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in agricultural soils. A 4-year experiment was conducted to identify the influence of tillage practices on SOC sequestration in a double-cropped rice (Oryza sativa L.) field in Hunan Province of China. Three tillage treatments, no-till (NT), conventional plow tillage (PT), and rotary tillage (RT), were laid in a randomized complete block design. Concentrations of SOC and bulk density (BD) of the 0-80 cm soil layer were measured, and SOC stocks of the 0-20 and 0-80 cm soil layers were calculated on an equivalent soil mass (ESM) basis and fixed depth (FD) basis. Soil carbon budget (SCB) under different tillage systems were assessed on the basis of emissions of methane (CH4) and CO2 and the amount of carbon (C) removed by the rice harvest. After four years of experiment, the NT treatment sequestrated more SOC than the other treatments. The SOC stocks in the 0-80 cm layer under NT (on an ESM basis) was as high as 129.32 Mg C ha-1, significantly higher than those under PT and RT (P < 0.05). The order of SOC stocks in the 0-80 cm soil layer was NT > PT > RT, and the same order was observed for SCB; however, in the 0-20 cm soil layer, the RT treatment had a higher SOC stock than the PT treatment. Therefore, when comparing SOC stocks, only considering the top 20 cm of soil would lead to an incomplete evaluation for the tillage-induced effects on SOC stocks and SOC sequestrated in the subsoil layers should also be taken into consideration. The estimation of SOC stocks using the ESM instead of FD method would better reflect the actual changes in SOC stocks in the paddy filed, as the FD method amplified the tillage effects on SOC stocks. This study also indicated that NT plus straw retention on the soil surface was a viable option to increase SOC stocks in paddy soils. © 2013 Soil Science Society of China.
WEN X.-Y.,China Agricultural University |
WEN X.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
Dubinsky E.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory |
WU Y.,China Agricultural University |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2016
Wheat and maize are increasingly used as alternative crops to sunflower monocultures that dominate the Hetao Irrigation District in China. Shifts from sunflower monocultures to alternate cropping systems may have significant effects on below-ground microbial communities which control nutrient cycling and influence plant productivity. In this research, rhizosphere bacterial communities were compared among sunflower, wheat and maize cropping systems by 454 pyrosequencing. These cropping systems included 2 years wheat (cultivar Yongliang 4) and maize (cultivar Sidan 19) monoculture, more than 20 years sunflower (cultivar 5009) monoculture, and wheat-sunflower and maize-sunflower rotation. In addition, we investigated rhizosphere bacterial communities of healthy and diseased plants at maturity to determine the relationship between plant health and rotation effect. The results revealed taxonomic information about the overall bacterial community. And significant differences in bacterial community structure were detected among these cropping systems. Eight of the most abundant groups including Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Firmicutes accounted for more than 85% of the sequences in each treatment. The wheat-wheat rhizosphere had the highest proportion of Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and the lowest proportion of unclassified bacteria. Wheat-sunflower cropping system showed more abundant Acidobacteria than maize-sunflower and sunflower monoculture, exhibiting some influences of wheat on the succeeding crop. Maize-maize rhizosphere had the highest proportion of γ-Proteobacteria, Pseudomonadales and the lowest proportion of Acidobacteria. Sunflower rotation with wheat and maize could increase the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria while decrease the relative abundance of the unclassified phyla, as was similar with the health plants. This suggests some positive impacts of rotation with wheat and maize on the bacterial communities within a single field. These results demonstrate that different crop rotation systems can have significant effects on rhizosphere microbiomes that potentially alter plant productivities in agricultural systems. © 2016 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huang J.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
Huang J.,China Agricultural University |
Zhang H.-L.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
Zhang H.-L.,China Agricultural University |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012
Water stress is a worldwide issue and is being exacerbated by population increase, diets shifting, climate change and so on. Consumption of goods and services by humans often puts pressure on the water resources of production sites. The impact of people's consumption can be indexed by the indicator of water footprint. Based on numerous on-farm data, this study determined the water footprint associated with the consumption of crop products produced locally in Beijing. The total water footprint related to the consumption of local crop products in Beijing during 2009 was 23.7 × 108 m3. Grey water had the largest contribution (58%), followed by green water (23%) and blue water (19%). Vegetables, maize and wheat were the largest three contributors, accounting for 53, 33 and 9% of the total water footprint. Based on the production perspective, improving water and fertilizer management has great potential for reducing the blue and grey water footprints of crops in the farming stage. However, the challenge is how to inspire farmers to participate in the activities of reducing water consumption and pollution. Increasing farmers', especially female farmers' access to related technologies can have a positive impact on the sustainable use of water in Beijing. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang H.-L.,China Agricultural University |
Zhang H.-L.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
Zhao X.,China Agricultural University |
Zhao X.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
And 13 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2015
Climate change has been a concern of policy makers, scientists, and farmers due to its complex nature and far-reaching impacts. It is the right time to analyze the impacts of climate change and potential adaptations, and identify future strategies for sustainable development. This study assessed changes in climatic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation) at three typical sites (i.e., Luancheng, Feixiang, and Huanghua) in the North China Plain (NCP), and analyzed adaptations of farming practices. Results indicated that the mean annual temperature followed a significant increasing trend during 1981–2011, with 0.57, 0.47, and 0.44 °C decade−1 for Luancheng, Huanghua, and Feixiang, respectively. A significant increase of 0.67, 0.53, and 0.38 °C decade−1 was observed for the winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) season for Luancheng, Huanghua, and Feixiang, respectively (P < 0.05), but no significant change for the summer-corn (Zea mays L.) season for the three sites. The annual accumulated temperature (≥10 °C) increased significantly during 1981–2011 (P < 0.01), with 17.60, 10.49, and 14.09 °C yr−1 for Luancheng, Huanghua, and Feixiang, respectively. There was no significant increase of mean annual precipitation, which had large inter-annual fluctuations among the three sites. In addition, significant challenges lie ahead for the NCP due to climate change, e.g., increasing food grain demand, water shortages, high inputs, high carbon (C) emissions, and decreasing profits. Trade-offs between crop production, water resource conservation, and intensive agricultural inputs will inhibit sustainable agricultural development in the NCP. Farming practices have been adapted to the climate change in the NCP, e.g. late seeding for the winter-wheat, tillage conversion, and water saving irrigation. Therefore, innovative technologies, such as climate-smart agriculture, will play important roles in balancing food security and resources use, enhancing water use efficiency, reducing C emissions in the NCP. Coordinated efforts from the government, scientists, and farmers are also necessary, in response to climate change. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
YIN X.G.,China Agricultural University |
YIN X.G.,Key Laboratory of Farming system |
YIN X.G.,University of Aarhus |
JABLOUN M.,University of Aarhus |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016
Drought risk is considered to be among the main limiting factors for maize (Zea mays L.) production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR). Maize yield data from 44 stations over the period 1961–2010 were combined with data from weather stations to evaluate the effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on rain-fed maize yield in specific maize growth phases. The maize growing season was divided into four growth phases comprising seeding, vegetative, flowering and maturity based on observations of phenological data from 1981 to 2010. The dual crop coefficient was used to calculate crop evapotranspiration and soil water balance during the maize growing season. The effects of mean temperature, solar radiation, effective rainfall, water deficit, drought stress days, actual crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement in different growth phases were included in the statistical model to predict maize yield. During the period 1961–2010, mean temperature increased significantly in all growth phases in NFR, while solar radiation decreased significantly in southern NFR in the seeding, vegetative and flowering phases. Effective rainfall increased in the seeding and vegetative phases, reducing water deficit over the period, whereas decreasing effective rainfall over time in the flowering and maturity phases enhanced water deficit. An increase in days with drought stress was concentrated in western NFR, with larger volumes of irrigation needed to compensate for increased dryness. The present results indicate that higher mean temperature in the seeding and maturity phases was beneficial for maize yield, whereas excessive rainfall would damage maize yield, in particular in the seeding and flowering phases. Drought stress in any growth stage was found to reduce maize yield and water deficit was slightly better than other indicators of drought stress for explaining yield variability. The effect of drought stress was particularly strong in the seeding and flowering phases, indicating that these periods should be given priority for irrigation. The yield-reducing effects of both drought and intense rainfall illustrate the importance of further development of irrigation and drainage systems for ensuring the stability of maize production in NFR. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016
Zhang Y.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
Liu N.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
Su D.,Key Laboratory of Farming System |
Xue Q.,Texas AgriLife Research Center |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2012
The effect of source and sink manipulation on accumulation of micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu) and protein in wheat grains was studied in a field experiment and ear culture. The source and sink manipulation was obtained by reducing assimilate source (through defoliation and spike shading) or sink (through 50% spikelets removal) after anthesis in the field and by changing sucrose or NH 4NO 3 levels of the culture media in ear culture. In the field experiment, reducing source and sink generally increased Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and protein concentrations except defoliation which decreased Mn concentration. Grain yield as well as micronutrient and protein contents in grains were all reduced by reducing source and sink sizes, suggesting that the accumulation of micronutrients and protein in grains was restricted by source supply and sink capacity. In ear culture, the supply of 20 to 80 g L -1 sucrose increased grain weight and yield, but decreased grain Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and protein concentrations. The supply of 0.57 to 2.28 g L -1 NH 4NO 3 increased grain yield and the concentrations and contents of micronutrients and protein. All these results show that micronutrient and protein accumulation in grains can be affected by the source-sink relationship of carbohydrate and nitrogen. Adequate N supply can simultaneously increase grain yield and the accumulation of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and protein. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.