Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues

Beijing, China

Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues

Beijing, China
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Ben W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang J.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Pan X.,Foreign Economic Cooperation Office | Qiang Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

This work investigated the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encoding resistance to sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics in nine swine feedlots located in Shandong Province of China, and examined their potential removal by various on-farm treatment processes. Results indicate that the target ARGs were widely distributed in swine wastes, with mean relative abundances ranging from 3.3 × 10−5 (tetC) to 5.2 × 10−1 (tetO) in swine manure and from 7.3 × 10−3 (tetC) to 1.7 × 10−1 (tetO) in swine wastewater. The mean relative ARG abundances ranged from 9.9 × 10−5 (tetW) to 1.1 × 10−2 (tetO) in soils and from 3.1 × 10−4 (tetW) to 1.1 × 10−2 (sul2) in receiving river sediments, indicating that the farmland application of swine manure compost and the discharge of swine wastewater promoted the dissemination of ARGs into adjacent environments. Microbial fermentation bed (MFB) could reduce the relative ARG abundances by 0–1.18 logs. However, septic tank, biogas digester and natural drying methods were relatively ineffective for ARG removal, and the relative abundances of some ARGs (i.e., tetC, tetG, sul1, and sul2) even increased by 0.74–3.90 logs in treated wastes. Bacterial diversity analysis indicates that the evolution of bacterial communities in the MFB played a crucial role in eliminating the ARGs. This study helps the effective assessment and management of ecological risks arising from ARGs in swine feedlots. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Fu C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Fu C.,China Agricultural University | Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian Y.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | And 6 more authors.
Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica | Year: 2017

By analyzing the industrial analysis, element analysis, heating value, combustion characteristics, ash composition and ash fusibility before and after water-washing pretreatment with different solid-liquid ratio, the fuel performance of fermented residue of sweet sorghum stalks was studied at room temperature. It was showed that waterwashing can efficiently removed the ash content, enhanced the low calorific value, and greatly reduced the Cl, N elements in the fuel, and the fuel slagging index in the ash. At the room temperature, in order to remove the ash, Cl and N elements, and enhance the fuel combustion characteristics, it was suggested that the solid-liquid ratio is at 1:30. At the same time, pickling method should be adopted to reduce the alkaline oxide content in the ash in the next research. © 2017, Editorial Board of Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica. All right reserved.


Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian Y.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Xu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu Y.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | And 8 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

To understand the effects of different storage conditions on physicochemical properties of crop straw, this paper has studied 3 kinds of straw pretreated methods which specifically are the whole plant, baling and crushing, together with 3 storage methods of pretreated straw i.e. stored in the open air, under the covering condition and under the sealed condition with tarpaulin for a period of 5 months. The results show that average of total moisture content of crushed stalks reaches 19.16%, which is respectively 15.71% and 15.34% higher than whole plant and baling straw. Due to the influence of environmental humidity and their own physical and chemical effects, total moisture contents of straw stored in the open air and under the sealed condition are higher than that stored under the covering condition; for the same pile of straw, total moisture content in each layer has the same change, but there are significant differences between the values. Straw temperature changes with the external environment; all are closely related to moisture content, average daily temperature does not change significantly, and the range is only between 3.24 and 3.71℃. The maximum storage temperatures are 40.8, 35.4 and 44.7℃, respectively, when whole plant stalks are stored in the open air, under the covering and sealed condition; the above data for baling straw are 32.7, 30.3 and 35.8℃, respectively; and crushed stalks are 40.5, 39.3 and 43.7℃, respectively. So, the bale of straw is easy safe storage, and when the whole plant and crushing straw are stored for a long time, it should keep the environment ventilated. The calorific value is negatively correlated with total moisture content, the calorific value based on dry basis is higher than that based on receive basis. When the group is on dry basis, the calorific values of whole plant and baling straw are similar, with the average reaching 14 000 kJ/kg, and the calorific value of crushed straw is lower, around 13 000 kJ/kg. When the group is on receive basis, the calorific value presents downward trend over time, showing more obvious decline in February and a negative correlation with the total moisture change. Taking the whole plant stalks as the example, the calorific value is reduced by 1512, 1608 and 1612 kJ/kg respectively from January to May when straw is stored in open air, under the covering and sealed condition; the average calorific value of sealed storage is the lowest, only 11 547 kJ/kg. On the whole, the total moisture and volatile of crushed straw are higher than whole plant and baling straw, and the ash content is lower than them; the total moisture and volatile of sealed storage are higher than stored in the open air and covered storage, and the ash content is lower than them. Therefore, crushed straw is not conducive to energy use, and bale of straw is easier storage than the whole plant, but its cost is higher; sealed storage is not recommended, and because the parameter indices change inconsistently when straw is stored in the open air and under the covering condition, the latter two methods require further study. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian Y.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Wang R.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang R.,China Agricultural University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2016

Thermokinetics analysis can test the relationship between physical and chemical properties of material and temperature through controlling heating rate. Through thermokinetics analysis, we can study the combustion, pyrolysis and gasification reaction kinetics of biomass, decide the reaction kinetics model and calculate the reaction kinetics parameters, such as activation energy and pre-exponential factor. In the article, we chose 6 kinds of biomass raw materials, including corn straw, wheat straw, cotton stalk, pine sawdust, peanut shell, and residue of sweet sorghum. The thermal gravity analysis (TG) experiments were carried out, and 8 loss curves were obtained under non-isothermal conditions at linear heating rate of 5, 10, 20 and 30 ℃/min. The 99.99% nitrogen continuously passed and the temperature rose from room temperature to 600℃. The initial sample weight was always within the range of 3-4 mg. The method of different heating rates was applied to non-isothermal data. The Friedman method and the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method were used for the estimation of the activation energy, and the Malek method was used for the decision of the reaction kinetics model, which were defined as the sample of the pre-exponential factor and the conversion function, respectively. The results showed that the pyrolysis process of biomass included 3 main stages: drying and preheating stage, volatile matter evaporation stage and carbonization stage. The higher the total moisture in biomass, the greater the mass loss rate for the sample at the first stage. Volatile matter evaporation stage was the most important stage in the pyrolysis process, in which the mass loss rate of the sample increased rapidly with the increase of the temperature. The carbonization stage was mainly the continued pyrolysis of lignin, and carbon and ash were the final products. In the whole range of conversion rate, the activation energy of biomass was not a fixed value, and it would increase gradually with the increase of conversion rate. Due to the influence of the particle size, the buoyancy and the non homogeneous phase, in the range of conversion rate <0.2, and >0.8, the TG curve was difficult to meet the requirements of the temperature at different heating rates under the same conversion rate. In the volatile matter evaporation stage, the activation energies obtained by Friedman method and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method were almost the same and hardly changed with the conversion rate. The pyrolysis activation energy of the biomass ranged from 144.61 to 167.34 kJ/mol, and the correlation coefficient was almost between 0.99 and 1.00. This shows that the calculation method of the activation energy is reliable in this paper. Among biomass raw materials, corn straw and wheat straw belonged to gramineous crops, whose activation energy was high, 167.34 and 167.20 kJ/mol respectively; lignification degree of cotton stalk, pine sawdust and peanut shell was higher, whose activation energy was lower, 154.06, 147.29 and 146.91 kJ/mol respectively; residue of sweet sorghum was processed by biochemical process, whose activation energy was the lowest, 144.61 kJ/mol. The reaction kinetics models of the biomass conformed the Avrami-Erofeev function. This shows that because the composition and structure of different biomass materials are basically the same, the reaction kinetics models are basically the same. But, there were some differences in the reaction orders. The reaction order of corn stalk and peanut shell was 3; the reaction order of wheat straw, cotton stalk and residue of sweet sorghum was 2; and the reaction order of pine sawdust was 1.5. The pre-exponential factor of the biomass ranged from 26.66 to 33.97 s-1. Our results show that biomass pyrolysis is an extremely complex multi-step process, which has different activation energy and reaction kinetics model in different temperature range. This is important theoretical basis for the optimization of process conditions and engineering amplification of biomass pyrolysis process. © 2016, Editorial Department of the Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Fu C.G.,China Agricultural University | Fu C.G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Fu C.G.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Ma S.B.,Nanyang Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Ignition temperature is an important parameter in fuel combustion characteristics research. In this paper, tradition ignition temperature determination methods and their application limitations were discussed by analyzing the DTA curve. All discussions were demonstrated in sweet sorghum fermentation residue particles combustion test. As commonly-used methods were totally established with no consideration of thermal analyzing, the calculating value error were obvious. Taking account detected time tk (uV>0) and delay time(Δtd) in DTG (derivative thermogravimetry)-DTA (differential thermal analyses) profile, DTG-DTA delay time method was established in this paper. The calculated values comparison has been performed between new method and TG-DTG dividing point method, the latter was recognized as the most accurate method. It was showed that new method has almost the same ignition temperature to that of TG-DTG dividing point method. While new method needs only half workloads of TG-DTG diving point method. The physical conception of new method is clear and corresponded ignition temperature is accurate. Therefore, new method is suitable for biomass ignition temperature determination. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Fu C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Fu C.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Fu C.,China Agricultural University | Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica | Year: 2016

The combustion characteristic test and the NOx(CO)emission tests were carried out to explore the feasibility of the fermentation residue of the sweet sorghum stalk as biomass fuel. While the TG-DTG-DTA technology had been utilized to test the characteristics in different heating rate with air and nitrogen condition,and the unburnt pollutions tests were experimented on the fire test platform in the Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues,Ministry of Agriculture. The tests showed that volatile combustion occupies a large part of the fermentation residue's whole combustion stage. Under the heating rate 40 ℃/min in air atmosphere,the best combustion efficiency happened,where the volatile release characteristic index and comprehensive combustion characteristics are the biggest in the all heating rate circumstances. when the air ration between 1.7 and 2.2,the maximum NOx emission is 348.4 mg/m3. When the excessive air ratio below 1.95 and 1.72,the NOx emission under 300 and 200 mg/m3 respectively. © 2016, Editorial Board of Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica. All right reserved.


Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Y.,China Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

Because there exists much diversity in raw materials, biomass fuel pellet properties, and corresponding combustion equipment, research to develop the fuel adaptability of biomass burners is necessary. The research was accomplished on a self-build biomass combustion equipment-monitoring platform. The monitoring platform has multiple sensors to collect and process data of the burner's control parameters and combustion state parameters. Based on the platform, the author used a PB-20-type biomass pellet burner, which is designed by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering. The author investigated five kinds of biomass pellets with ash values from 0 to 25 percent, And tested nine kinds of working conditions for each pellet with 3, 4, and 5 kg/h fuel feed rates and 2 600, 2 700, and 2 800 r/min fan speed. The thermal performance of the burner was tested according to the GB/T10180-2003 Thermal performance test code for industrial boilers and the GB13271-2001 Emission standard of air pollutants for coal-burning oil-burning gas-fired boilers. During each test, the water circulation amount, inlet and outlet temperature of water, cold air and exhaust gas temperature, slag temperature, O2\CO\NO\NO2 content in flue gas, and the slag ash content were processed. The excess air ratio, anti-balance efficiency, gas incomplete combustion heat loss, heat loss due to combustion in refuse, heat loss due to sensible heat in slag, soot emissions and blackness of each condition with the thermal performance data of the burnerwere then calculated. Combined with physical and chemical characteristics of the pellet fuels, the pellet fuel combustion efficiency change and its causes wereanalyzed, and fuel feed rate and the best match into the air flow of 15-25 kW biomass pellet fuel burner were obtained. The results showed that the pellets with ash content ≥20 percentwere not applicable to this type of biomass pellet burner; the recommended parameters for pellets with ash rate 12.40 percent were 4 kg/h (feed rate), 2600-2800 r/min (fan speed), 3 r/min, turn on 5 sec/turn off 35 sec (slag-off speed); for pellets with ash rate 7.21percent, the recommended parameters were 3-4 kg/h (feed rate), 2600-2800 r/min (fan speed), 3 r/min, turn on 5 sec/turn off 60-55 sec (slag-off speed); and for pellets withash rate ≤1.0 percent, the recommended parameters were 3-4 kg/h (feed rate), 2600-2800 r/min (fan speed), without slagging. This study summarizes the burner's control parameters for the biomass pellet fuel, and provides data support for the promotion and application of the pellet burner.


Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian Y.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Fu C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Fu C.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | And 10 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

Crop residues are important biological resources that can be used as sources of renewable energy, feed and other industries. After crushing crop straws into particles, belt conveyor is a common transportation way of the straw particles for production process. However, the quantity of mass transferred straw with belt conveyor was affected by various factors, whose influencing mechanisms are not clear so far.. In this study, corn straw was used as an experimental material to determine the mass transfer rules of the physical factors (total moisture and bulk density) and belt conveyor factors (conveying inclination and belt speed) with belt conveyor. For comparison, wheat and sweet sorghum straws were also experimented. The results showed that the mass transfer rate and bulk density of corn straw increased almost linearly along with the increase of total moisture.On the contrary, the dry mass transfer rate decreased linearly. As the bulk density of particle increased with total moisture, the rate of change in mass transfer rate decreased oppositely. In addition, particle size has a vital effect on the mass transfer rate and the fluidization angle of conveyor belt. Decreasing the particle size resulted in an increase of the mass transfer rate, the angle of conveyor belt, and the bulk density in the corn straw experiment. Furthermore, there is a critical belt speed point when conveyor inclination from 25-35°. Once the belt speed surpasses this speed point, an obviously rate of change will be present in the mass transfer rate curve. For the corn straw, the critical belt speed point was 1.6 m/s. Wheat straw and sweet sorghum straw were tested to verify the transfer rules with the same testing methods. The correlation between the mass transfer rate with conveying belt inclination in corn straw is different from that in wheat straw, whose correlation was linear dependence. But the results from straw of sweet sorghum test was similar to that of corn straw. The experimental results lead to the conclusion that the same type bio-structure straw has the same mass transfer law. To the corn and sweet sorghum straw, the conveying inclination should less than 32° and 35.5°, the belt speed should exceed 1.6 m/s and 1.8 m/s respectively. In the mass transfer process stage, critical fluidization angle is an important physical parameter, which has important influences on mass transfer rate. In this paper, the computed correlation function has been shown that fluidization angle equal to the weighed linear relations of the accumulated angle of move, which corresponding to every particle size range. The theoretically calculated results had a good agreement with the experimental results. Above all, this paper provided the research methods for other agriculture residues' mass transfer rate with belt conveyor.


Xu Y.,Rural Energy and Environmental Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering | Xu Y.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Xu Y.,China Agricultural University | Tian Y.,Rural Energy and Environmental Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering | And 8 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

In order to select appropriate mode of crop straw's collection-storage-transportation, and promote the large-scale use of straw resources, the mathematical model about straw's collection, storage and transportation was established, which was based on the equipment, manpower, and cost on the North China Plain. By analyzing different modes about straw's collection-storage-transportation (which was divided into centralized model, decentralized mode; collected by manpower, collected by machinery), the effect of cost and energy consumption were different. Because of the different amounts of straw collection, manpower and equipments were demanded in mathematical models. The results showed that the cost of straw's collection-storage-transportation was 120- 260 Yuan/t, the fuel consumption of straw's collection-storage-transportation was 1.2×105 - 5.5×105 kJ/t. While using machinery to collected straw in filed, the cost was lower than that by manpower; but the required equipment number was significantly more than thatneeded by manpower. Meanwhile, the energy consumption of equipment was significantly increased. On the contrary, collecting straw in filed by manpower needs a lot of manpower. The calculated results showed that the cost and energy consumption of centralized mode about equipment-manpower- cost was lower than decentralized mode when collecting by the same manner. Compared to the manpower collection, collection by machinery can reduce the total cost, but the initial investment was higher and the capacity in solving employment problem was lower. When the amount of crop straw collection increased from 5×104 to 50×104 t, the unit cost of mode A and B was monotonically increasing. As to mode C and D, it declined quickly from 5×104 to 25×104 t, then rose gradually from 25×104 to 50×104 t. Therefore, it can be concluded that the collection methods affected cost extremely. Collecting straw by manpower, the mode of A and C curved intersect at 250 000 t; Or else, the mode of B and D curved intersect at 500 000 t. When the collected amount of crop straw increased from 5×104 to 50×104 t, the unit energy consumptions of mode A and B increased, with slow upward trend rate; On the contrary, from 5×104 to 25×104 t straw collection, the unit energy consumption of mode C and D was decreasing, when the collected amount of crop straw was 18×104 and 12×104 t, the unit energy consumption curves of mode B and C2 could intersect; Similarly, the unit energy consumption curves of mode A2 and C1 also could intersect. In this circumstance, when the collected amount was less than the intersection, the energy consumption of mode B and A2 was lower than mode C2 and C1. Therefore, the energy consumption of centralized mode is lower when the crop straw amount collected is less, it is recommended to choose centralized mode; Otherwise, decentralized mode is the better choice. ©, 2014, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Zhang Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang Z.,China Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues | Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

With the social and economic development, demand of energy is increasing. Biomass pellet fuels have a wide range of renewable raw materials. Biomass pellet fuels with small storage space, easily transport and use of clean and green, high thermal efficiency, and sustainable use, have broad prospects for the development in the future. Long-term storage of biomass fuels is necessary because that there is a time gap between feedstock harvesting and production for at least 6 months of storage in the factory. In order to study whether they can be adapted to store under northern climate, the physical and chemical characteristics of the different storage methods (bagging, semi-closed, open-air), we carried out an experiment to study the laws of the three storage modes with corn pellets and wood pellets on March to August in 2011. The results showed that the all biomass pellet fuels did not appear mildew, while the changing laws of total water and bulk density were accordance with the climate changes. The range of the corn pellet fuels and wood pellet fuels in the open-air storage mode were the largest with (2.42% and 2.55% respectively) of all the storage form, as the particle density does (0.12 and 1.297 t/m3 respectively). The ash and volatile matter of the three storage form kept stable. However, we found some strange phenomenon as follows: 1) generally, all the net calorific values become bigger as time (the total water values); 2) The range of the total water was the biggest (2.42%) when the corn pellets was stored in the open-air mode, while the range of the particle density was the smallest. So the phenomenon needs further study. The conclusions provide a theoretical basis for the safe storage of biomass pellet fules.

Loading Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues collaborators
Loading Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization from Agricultural Residues collaborators