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Liang H.,China Agricultural University | Yang Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang Q.,Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing | Year: 2013

Exergy analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change materials (PCMs) for a flat-plate was investigated. A selectively absorbing surface consists of nickel nano-particles was electrochemically prepared for solar collecting. The eutectic mixture formamide-sodium acetate trihydrate was used as phase change material (PCM), with a melting temperature of 40.5°C and heat of fusion of 255 kJ/kg. Exergy analysis, which is based on the second law of thermodynamics were introduced to evaluate efficiency of the system during the charging period. It was observed that the average energy and exergy efficiency of the system was 29.0% and 78.3%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Du L.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Liu W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu W.,Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2012

Globally, besides human medicine, an increasing amount of antibiotics as veterinary drugs and feed additives are used annually in many countries with the rapid development of the breeding industry (livestock breeding and aquaculture). As a result, mostly ingested antibiotic doses (30-90%) and their metabolites to humans and animals, as emerging persistent contaminants, were excreted together with urine and feces, and subsequently disseminated into environmental compartments in forms of urban wastewater, biosolids, and manures. More importantly, significant amount of antibiotics and their bioactive metabolites or degradation products were introduced in agro-ecosystems through fertilization and irrigation with antibiotics-polluted manures, biosolids, sewage sludge, sediments, and water. Subsequently, accumulation and transport of antibiotics in soil-crop systems, particularly soil-vegetable systems, e.g., protected vegetable and organic vegetable production systems, poses great risks on crops, soil ecosystem, and quality of groundwater-and plant-based products. The aim of this review is to explore the sources, fates (degradation, adsorption, runoff, leaching, and crop uptake), and ecological risks of antibiotics in agroecosystems and possible food security and public health impacts. Three topics were discussed: (1) the occurrence, fates, and ecological impacts of antibiotics in agroecosystems, a global agro-ecological issue; (2) the potential ecological risks and public health threat of antibiotic pollution in soil-vegetable system, especially protected vegetable and organic vegetable production systems; and (3) the strategies of reducing the introduction, accumulation, and ecological risks of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems. To summarize, environmental contamination of antibiotics has become increasingly serious worldwide, which poses great risks in agro-ecosystems. Notably, protected vegetable and organic vegetable production systems, as public health closely related agro-ecosystems, are susceptible to antibiotic contamination. Occurrence, fate, and ecotoxicity of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems, therefore, have become most urgent issues among antibiotic environmental problems. Nowadays, source control, including reducing use and lowering environmental release through pretreatments of urban wastes and manures is a feasible way to alleviate negative impacts of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems. © INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2011. Source


Li T.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li T.,Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation | Yang Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang Q.,Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light, which is well established due to diffuse light penetrates deeper into the canopy and photosynthetic rate of a single leaf shows a non-linear response to the light flux density. Diffuse light also results in a more even horizontal and temporal light distribution in the canopy, which plays substantial role for crop photosynthesis enhancement as well as production improvement. Here we show some of the recent findings about the effect of diffuse light on light distribution over the canopy and its direct and indirect effects on crop photosynthesis and plant growth, and suggest some perspectives for further research which could strengthen the scientific understanding of diffuse light modulate plant processes and its application in horticultural production. © 015 Li and Yang. Source


Zhao J.J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhao J.J.,Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation | Yang Q.C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang Q.C.,Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

In order to examine the effects of different light qualities (white, red, blue, and red light plus blue light) irradiated by LED lamps at 100 μmol·m-2·s-1 light intensity on the growth and photosynthetic pigment content of Atractylodes macrocephala seedlings, a kind of valuable Chinese medicinal plant, a pot cultivation experiment in growth chamber was conducted. Main wavelengths of red LED and blue LED were 619 nm and 458 nm, and light intensity ratio of red light plus blue light treatment was 1:1. The results showed that shoot height of Atractylodes macrocephala under red light was highest, while shortest under red plus blue light. However, root fresh weight and root length of Atractylodes macrocephala under red light treatment were lower compared with white light treatment, and there was no significant difference between the other three light treatments. The data indicated that root to shoot ratio under blue light was the biggest. Light qualities did not affect shoot fresh weight and photosynthetic pigment contents of Atractylodes macrocephala. The results suggested that LED light quality could regulate the growth of Atractylodes macrocephala seedlings, which was not due to the changes of photosynthetic pigment contents. Source


Sui Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sui Q.,Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation | Liu C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu C.,Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2014

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for the treatment of anaerobically digested swine wastewater and to investigate the effect of ammonium nitrogen concentration on biological nitrogen removal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community structures. The MBR achieved a high NH4 +-N removal efficiency of 0.08 kgNMLSS-1d-1 and removed 95% of the influent NH4 +-N. The TN removal rate was highest of 82.62% at COD/TN and BOD5/TN ratios of 8.76 ± 0.30 and 3.02 ± 0.09, respectively. With the decrease in ammonium nitrogen concentrations, the diversity of the AOB community declined and showed a simple pattern of DGGE. However, the AOB population size remained high, with abundance of 107-109 copies mL-1. With the decrease of ammonium nitrogen concentrations, Nitrosomonas eutropha gradually disappeared, whereas Nitrosomonas sp. OZK11 showed constant adaptability to survive during each treatment stage. The selective effect of ammonium concentration on AOB species could be due to the affinity for NH4 +-N. In this study, the changes of ammonium nitrogen concentrations in digested swine wastewater were found to have selective effects on the composition of AOB community, and biological nitrogen removal was improved by optimising the influencing parameters. © 2014. Source

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