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Wang S.,Shenyang University | Wang S.,Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Teng W.,Shenyang University | Teng W.,Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases of Liaoning Province | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2012

Maternal hypothyroidism has adverse effects on neural development in the offspring. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal subclinical hypothyroidism impairs spatial learning in the offspring, as well as the efficacy and optimal time of levothyroxine (L-T 4) treatment in pregnancy. Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=10 per group): control, hypothyroid (H), subclinical hypothyroid (SCH) and SCH treated with L-T 4, starting from the tenth, thirteenth and seventeenth gestational day (GD10, GD13 and GD17), respectively, to restore normal thyroid hormone levels. Spatial learning was assessed on progenies by a water maze test, a field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recording, and an long-term potentiation induction assay. Protein levels of early growth response protein 1 (Egr1), activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1), p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by western blotting. Progenies from the SCH and H groups demonstrated significantly longer mean latency in the water maze test and a lower amplification percentage of the amplitude and slope of the fEPSPs compared to offspring of the control group. L-T 4 treatment for the GD10 and GD13 groups significantly shortened mean latency and increased the amplification percentage of the amplitude and slope of the fEPSPs of the progeny of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism. However, L-T 4 treatment for the GD17 group showed only minimal effects on spatial learning in the offspring. Progenies of SCH and H groups had lower levels of Egr1, Arc, p-ERK and BDNF but higher levels of Rap1 compared to those of the controls. L-T 4 treatment ameliorated these protein expression changes in the progeny of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism. Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism impaired spatial learning in the offspring; L-T 4 treatment in early pregnancy recovered this adverse effect, and the optimal time of treatment should start from early pregnancy (GD10 and GD13). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Hu Y.,Liaoning Medical University | Teng W.,Liaoning Medical University | Teng W.,Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases of Liaoning Province | Liu L.,Liaoning Medical University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in northeast area of China with a population-based study. Methods: A population of 3173 (aged from 20 to 80 years old) was stratified by geographical location and age in Liaoning province, China. Prediabetes and diabetes were diagnosed according to the guideline of American Diabetes Association. Retinal photographs were obtained by using digital non-mydriatic camera for the presence and grading of DR according to the modified ETDRS Airlie house classification. Blood samples and comprehensive questionnaires were obtained for evaluation of laboratory results and risk factors. Results: The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was 20.7% and 10.4%, respectively. Among diabetes patients, DR prevalence was 11.9%. Age, obesity, total cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertension, living in rural areas and diabetes family history are all risk factors for prediabetes and diabetes. Waist-to-hip circumference rate served as a better obesity index to estimate diabetes risk compared with body mass index and waist circumference. Among all risk factors that we investigated, only the length of diabetes history was associated with the incidence of DR. However, DR prevalence in the newly discovered patients in rural areas was significantly higher than that in urban areas. Conclusion: According to this study, 1 in 10 people has diabetes, 2 in 10 people have prediabetes, and 1 in 10 diabetics has DR in Liaoning province. In rural areas, diabetes was poorly recognized with limited medical resources, which probably resulted in more diabetes patient at a high risk of DR. © 2015 Hu et al. Source

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