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Dong L.,China University of Mining and Technology | Lu Z.,China University of Mining and Technology | Lu Z.,Key Laboratory of Eco environmental Science for Yellow River Delta in Shandong Province | Jia Q.,China University of Mining and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Paper mill effluent contains a lot of organic matter, which can be used to improve the chemical properties of degraded coastal saline-alkaline lands after biological pond treatment. At the same time, the increase of soil organic matter after irrigation provided a lot of carbon source for microbes, the microbes have grewed with using these carbon souce, which increase the enzyme activity. The soil enzyme activity and soil fertility also has certain correlation. The urease activity is related to the amount of substrate microorganisms, organic matter and total nitrogen, the higher of the soil nitrogen content, the better of the urease activity. The high low of phosphatase activity and dehydrogenase activity are related to the high low of the amount of the soil organic matter. The influence on soil enzyme activity under different irrigation modes was further analyzed. The results showed that the activities of urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase in cotton field soil were significantly increased under the three irrigation modes of sewage irrigation, feculence-clearing rotation irrigation, and fresh water irrigation. Similarly, under the treatment of feculence-clearing rotation irrigation, the activities of urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase in slight, moderate and severe salinization soils were also significantly increased. Specifically, compared with the cotton field and slight saline soils, the enzyme activities were increased more significantly in the moderate and severe saline soils. That is, compared with the control group, the activities of urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase were enhanced by 44.7%, 15.6%, and 12.4%, respectively, in the moderate saline soil; and by 44.7%, 15.6%, and 12.4%, respectively, in the severe saline soil. The average activities of the three enzymes in the cotton soil were the highest with sewage water irrigation. The activities of urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase under the sewage water irrigation mode were 1.23, 1.05, 1.39 times as many as those under the feculence-clearing rotation irrigation mode separately. Under the feculence-clearing rotation irrigation, the average activities of the three enzymes in slight, moderate and severe saline soils were the highest. In the slight saline soil, the activities of urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase under the feculence-clearing rotation irrigation mode were 1.09, 1.08, 0.97 times as many as those under the sewage water irrigation mode separately. In the moderate saline soil, the activities of urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase under the feculence-clearing rotation irrigation mode were 1.12, 1.07, 1.15, times as many as those under the sewage water irrigation mode separately. In severe saline soil, the activities of urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase under the feculence-clearing rotation irrigation mode were 0.98, 1. 12, 1.31 times as many as those under the sewage water irrigation mode separately. The feculence-clearing rotation irrigation is critical in improving the three enzyme activities and soil fertility of the degraded saline wetlands. This study proved that irrigation with paper mill effluent not only could improve soil fertility, but also could significantly increase enzyme activity of the degraded saline-alkaline lands. The increase of soil enzyme activity showed that: the quality of the salinization soil has been effectively improved by irrigation with treated paper mill effluent. Source


Xia M.,China University of Mining and Technology | Liu Z.,CAS Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology | Lu Z.,China University of Mining and Technology | Lu Z.,Key Laboratory of Eco environmental Science for Yellow River Delta in Shandong Province
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2012

Combined with anti-waterlogging ditches, irrigation with treated paper mill effluent (TPME) and plowing were applied in this study to investigate the effects of remediation of degraded coastal saline-alkaline wetlands. Three treatments were employed, viz., control (CK), irrigated with 10 cm depth of TPME (I), and plowing to 20 cm deep before irrigating 10 cm depth of TPME (IP). Results show that both I-treatment and IP-treatment could improve soil structure by decreasing bulk density by 5% and 8%. Irrigation with TPME containing low salinity stimulated salts leaching instead of accumulating. With anti-waterlogging ditches, salts were drained out of soil. Irrigation with 10 cm depth of TPME lowered total soluble salts in soil and sodium adsorption ration by 33% and 8%, respectively, but there was no significant difference compared with CK, indicating that this irrigation rate was not heavy enough to remarkably reduce soil salinity and sodicity. Thus, irrigation rate should be enhanced in order to reach better effects of desalinization and desodication. Irrigation with TPME significantly increased soil organic matter, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus due to the abundant organic matter in TPME. Plowing increased soil air circulation, so as to enhance mineralization of organic matter and lead to the loss of organic matter; however, plowing significantly improved soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus. Improvements of physicochemical properties in I-treatment and IP-treatment both boosted soil microbial population and activity. Microbial biomass carbon increased significantly by 327% (I-treatment) and 451% (IP-treatment), while soil respiration increased significantly by 316% (I-treatment) and 386% (IP-treatment). Urease and dehydrogenase activities in both I-treatment and IP-treatment were significantly higher than that in CK. Phosphatase in IP-treatment was significantly higher than that in CK. Compared to I-treatment, IP-treatment improved all of the soil properties except for soil organic matter. The key to remediation of degraded saline-alkaline wetlands is to decrease soil salinity and sodicity; thus, irrigation plus plowing could be an ideal method of soil remediation. © 2012 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Xia M.,China University of Mining and Technology | Miao Y.,China University of Mining and Technology | Lu Z.,China University of Mining and Technology | Lu Z.,Key Laboratory of Eco environmental Science for Yellow River Delta in Shandong Province | Pei D.,New Energy And Industrial Technology Development Organization
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Yellow River Delta, which is surrounded by Bohai Sea to the north and Laizhou Bay to the east, is one of the three largest deltas in China. However, large amounts of water and salts that were brought by penetration of water in the Yellow River and encroachment of sea water resulted in the rise of groundwater level and salinization. Under the influence of strong evaporation, the soil degraded into saline soil. Currently, up to around 1670 km2 of land have turned into saline soil in the Yellow River Delta. Thus, it is urgent to ameliorate the saline soil for the assurance of ecological security and coordinated development of economy and ecology. Treated paper mill effluent was low in salinity and high in organic matter, and could be used to restore saline soil. Irrigation with treated paper mill effluent could enrich soil nutrients, improve soil activity and leach soil salts, and meanwhile it could solve the disposal problem of paper mill effluent. Thus, different depths (viz. 5, 10, 15 cm and 20 cm) of treated paper mill effluent were irrigated for remediation of saline soil in this study. In addition, anti-waterlogging ditches were built around the plots for discharging leached soil salts. Soil enzyme activities, which can reflect soil fertility, are important parameters for evaluating soil quality. Five enzymes, viz. urease, phosphatase, sucrase, dehydrogenase and catalase, were used to evaluate the effectiveness of saline soil remediation. Under the multi-influences of soil water content, temperature, aeration, nutrients and salts, soil enzyme activities were higher in soil layers of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm than those in soil layer of 20-30 cm. Irrigation did not change the distribution of soil enzymes in the different soil layers. The improvements of urease and phosphatase mainly achieved in soil layer of 0-10 cm, and those of sucrase, dehydrogenase and catalase mainly achieved in both soil layers of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. Irrigation rate of 20 cm was the most effective in improving soil enzyme activities in lower soil layer (20-30 cm). The five enzymes also presented regular seasonal dynamics, all reaching the highest level in August. Irrigation with treated paper mill effluent, salinity (2080 mg/L) of which was very low compared to the present saline soil (2.31%), was effective in reducing soil salinity. Thus, inhibition of soil salinity to enzymes was reduced. In addition, irrigation with treated paper mill effluent introduced abundant of substrates for enzymes. Consequently, all the five enzyme activities were significantly improved. In general, higher irrigation rates were more effective in the improvement of enzyme activities and 20 cm turned out to be the optimum irrigation rate. Compared to the control, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrose, dehydrogenase and catalase were improved by 70.0%, 30.9%, 56.2%, 135.2% and 20.84%, respectively. The results also showed that in the studied saline soil, the five soil enzyme activities presented significantly negative correlation with soil salinity, sodicity and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2), and significantly positive correlation with available phosphorus and microbial biomass carbon, while no significant correlation with soil organic matter and available nitrogen due to the different dynamics over time after irrigation. Source


Ma X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Xia M.,China University of Mining and Technology | Xia M.,Key Laboratory of Eco environmental Science for Yellow River Delta in Shandong Province | Lu Z.,China University of Mining and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

The paper mill effluent might be used for degraded wetlands restoration due to its abundant organic substances. Chemical properties including soil pH, total soluble salts, Na+, Cl- and soil nutrients of a heavily degraded coastal saline-alkaline wetland were studied after irrigation with treated paper mill effluent. The result showed that the soil pH increased a little without leading to aggravation of the soil alkalization. Compared to the control, the total soluble salts, Na+ and Cl- decreased by 9.61% - 37.05%, 3.16% - 21.66% and 5.38% - 28.44% respectively, and the reduction rates of upper soil layers were higher than those of the middle and lower layers. Irrigation of paper mill effluent significantly improved the soil organic matter, alkali-hydrolyzable N and available P with the increasing rates higher than the control by 13.68% - 31.45%, 30.01% - 101.07% and 1.08% - 18.28% respectively. While available K did not rise significantly. A comparison with natural reed wetlands showed that irrigation with treated paper mill effluent could improve the soil property of the heavily degraded coastal wetland to the level suitable for reeds restoration and reed wetlands reconstruction. Source


Xia M.,China University of Mining and Technology | Xia M.,Key Laboratory of Eco environmental Science for Yellow River Delta in Shandong Province | Xia M.,New York University | Lu Z.,China University of Mining and Technology | And 5 more authors.
5th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, iCBBE 2011 | Year: 2011

This study investigated the effects of paper mill effluent, waste sludge, and wheat straw residue on remediation of heavily degraded coastal saline wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China. Five treatments were employed, i.e., plowing (P); plowing plus paper mill effluent (PE); plowing plus paper mill effluent and sludge (PES); plowing plus paper mill effluent and wheat straw residue (PER); and plowing plus paper mill effluent, sludge and wheat straw residue (PESR). Effects of the five treatments on wetland remediation were evaluated in soil properties, including bulk density, total soluble salt, organic matter, alkali-hydrolyzable N, available P and available K, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, and enzyme activity. All the treatments improved soil properties. The most effective treatment was PERS which significantly improved all of the soil properties, compared to the controls. In general, the effects of different treatments were in the following order: PERS>PER>PES>PE>P. Besides soil nutrients, total soluble salt was another main factor that influenced soil microbial activities. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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