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Liu E.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu E.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming g Agriculture | Yan C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan C.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming g Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) as affected by farming practices is imperative for maintaining soil productivity and mitigating global warming. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization on SOC and SOC fractions for the whole soil profile (0-100 cm) in northwest China. The study was initiated in 1979 in Gansu, China and included six treatments: unfertilized control (CK), nitrogen fertilizer (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) fertilizers (NP), straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S), farmyard manure (FYM), and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM). Results showed that SOC concentration in the 0-20 cm soil layer increased with time except in the CK and N treatments. Long-term fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth. Below 60 cm, SOC concentrations and storages were statistically not significant between all treatments. The concentration of SOC at different depths in 0-60 cm soil profile was higher under NP+FYM follow by under NP+S, compared to under CK. The SOC storage in 0-60 cm in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased labile soil organic carbon pools in 0-60 cm depth. The average concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM) in 0-60 cm depth were increased by 64.9-91.9%, 42.5-56.9%, and 74.7-99.4%, respectively, over the CK treatment. The POC, MBC and DOC concentrations increased linearly with increasing SOC content. These results indicate that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects in building carbon pools among the investigated types of fertilization. © 2013 Liu et al.


Liu E.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu E.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming g Agriculture | Yan C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan C.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming g Agriculture | And 11 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2010

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of long-term (30-year) fertilizer and organic manure treatments on grain yield, soil chemical properties and some microbiological properties of arable soils in Pingliang, Gansu, China. Six treatments were chosen for this work: unfertilized control (CK), nitrogen fertilizer annually (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) fertilizers annually (NP), straw plus N added annually and P fertilizer added every second year (NP+S), farmyard manure added annually (FYM), and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers added annually (NP+FYM). Mean winter wheat yields for the 20years ranged from 1.60Mgha-1 for the CK treatment to 4.62Mgha-1 for the NP+FYM treatment. Maize yields for the 8years averaged 3.40 and 7.66Mgha-1 in the same treatments. The results showed that there was no interaction between farmyard manure and NP fertilizers. Compared with the CK treatment, the average soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) content were 2.0 and 3.1%, 1.9 and 13.3%, 32.7 and 24.5%, 23.0 and 19.4%, and 39.9 and 27.6% larger, respectively, for N, NP, FYM, NP+S and NP+FYM. The N only resulted in not only lowering of pH but also deficient of both P and K in the soil. Soil available K declined rapidly without straw or manure additions. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) contents increased with the application of nitrogen and phosphorus inorganic fertilizers. However, there was greater increase of these parameters when organic manure was applied along with inorganic fertilizers. Organic manure application also increased soil dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatases, β-glucosidasen and urease activity significantly. The results indicated that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects on grain yield and soil quality among the investigated types of fertilization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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