Key laboratory of Dryland Agriculture

MOA, China

Key laboratory of Dryland Agriculture

MOA, China
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Ren X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ren X.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Sun D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun D.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2017

Concerning the increasing of plant density is one of important ways to achieve high yield, field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of increasing plant density and plastic film mulching on the growth and yield of spring maize, and crop evapotranspiration. The results showed that film mulching accelerated growth and development of maize. It also increased height and leaf area index of the plant at early growth stage of maize. At the late growth stage of maize, plant height of maize without film mulching was decreased with the increase of density, but no significant difference was found for plastic film mulching. Whether mulching or un-mulching, leaf area index of maize was increased with the increase of the density. Evapotranspiration increased with the increase of the density, however, film mulching reduced consumption of water and alleviated the contradiction between increase of water consumption because of the increased plant density and plant height and insufficient precipitation. Film mulching significantly increased maize yield and water use efficiency by 52.79% and 60.55% compared with un-mulching. The grain yield and the water use efficiency of un-mulching and film mulching treatments were all increased with the increase of the plant density until a plateau and then declined. The difference was that the maximum yield of un-mulching was 8 466.02 kg/hm2 and it was achieved at 52 500 plants/hm2, however, the maximum yield of film mulching was 12 778.47 kg/hm2 and it was achieved at 82 500 plants/hm2. As a result, the optimum planting densities on eastern Loess Plateau for film mulching and un-mulching of spring maize were 52 500 plants/hm2 and 82 500 plants/hm2. © 2017, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Guo R.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo R.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Zhou J.,Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Center | Yang F.,Jilin Provincial Academy of Forestry Science | Li F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Scientia Agricultura Sinica | Year: 2017

[Objective] A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the alkaline stress in ion balance and metabolic profiles of wheat, to determine the physiological adaptive mechanisms of wheat in tolerance to alkali stress. [Method] In a pot experiment with control and alkaline stress (NaHCO3: Na2CO3=1: 1), the growth and photosynthetic characters, ion and 73 key metabolites of wheat were studied. [Result] The results showed that when alkaline stress intensity exceeded the capacity of wheat adjustment, Na+ accumulation in cells in a high-pH environment resulted in damage of the photosynthetic system, reduced photosynthetic pigments, inhibited the activity of photosystem II, and reduced high stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate. Alkaline stress caused massive influx of Na+, a decrease of inorganic negative charge and pH value homeostasis, thus resulting ionic unbalance and leading to a series of strain metabolic response. In addition, 73 metabolites were detected in different alkaline stress treatments according to GC-MS analysis, and these metabolites were sugars/polyols, organic acids, amino acids and others. Compared with the control sample, the response of 25 and 48 metabolites in moderate and severe alkaline stress treatments remarkably changed, respectively, in leaves of wheat seedlings. The results of one-way ANOVA analysis indicated that the changes of metabolites were more significant under high alkaline stress than that under moderate alkaline stress. The results revealed that alkaline stress caused an significant decrease in levels of 5 and 6 metabolites, which are involved in TCA cycle and glycolysis; it also caused amino acids (glutamate, alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, aspartic acid) and sugars/ploys (fructose, sucrose, talose, myo-inositol) decreased dramatically. Meanwhile, alkaline stress induced organic acids accumulation in wheat, and it maybe a passive adaptive response to alkaline stress, and organic acids kept ionic balance and pH homeostasis. [Conclusion] The results suggested that alkaline stress caused systems alterations in metabolic networks including TCA cycle, glycolysis, calvin cycle, shikimic path way, metabolism of plasma membrane, GS/GOGAT cycle and GABA path way, implying alkaline stress not only had side effect on synthesis of sugars, amino acids, fats and proteins, but also inhibited the translation between C and N, thus resulted in nutrients deficiency and caused decrease of plant growth and development.

Rui G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Rui G.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Ji Z.,Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Center | Fan Y.,Jilin Academy of Forestry Science | Feng L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology | Year: 2017

Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alkaline stress on primary, secondary metabolites and metabolic pathways in the roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The results were used to evaluate the physiological adaptive mechanisms by which wheat tolerated alkali stress. Methods A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse. For each plastic pot, five wheat seeds were planted. After germination, seedlings were allowed to grow under controlled water and nutrient conditions for two months, then seedlings were exposed to alkaline stress (NaHCO3-Na2CO3) for 12 days. The relative growth rate (RGR), absolute water content (AWC), metal elements, free cations and metabolites were measured. Important findings The alkaline stress caused the reduction of RGR and AWC. Alkaline stress caused a rapid increase of Na content with the concurrent decrease in K and Cl content, resulting in inhibited metal element accumulation and an ionic imbalance. In the present study, alkaline stress strongly enhanced Ca accumulation in wheat roots, suggesting that an increased Ca concentration can immediately trigger the salt overly sensitive (SOS)-Na exclusion system and reduce Na-associated injuries. Also, 70 metabolites, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars/polyols and others, behaved differently in the alkaline stress treatments according to a GC-MS analysis. The metabolic profiles of wheat were closely associated with alkaline-stress conditions. Alkaline stress caused the accumulation of organic acids, accompanied by the depletion of sugars/polyols and amino acids. Organic acids could play a central role in the regulation of intracellular pH by accumulating vacuoles to neutralize excess cations. Glycolysis and amino acid synthesis in roots were inhibited under salt stress while prolonged alkaline stress led to a progressive tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The severe negative effects of alkaline stress on sugar synthesis and storage may reflect the toxic levels of Na+ accumulating in plant cells in a high-pH environment, implying that the reactive oxygen species detoxification capacity was diminished by the high pH. A lack of NO3-in wheat roots can decrease synthase enzyme activities, limiting the synthesis of amino acids. Under salt stress, the TCA cycle and organic acid accumulation increased, but glycolysis and amino acid synthesis were inhibited in roots. Thus, energy levels and high concentrations of organic acids may be the key adaptive mechanisms by which wheat seedlings maintain their intracellular ion balance under alkaline stress. © 2017Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology.

Liu X.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Liu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu Y.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Xu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

Application of the ångström-Prescott (A-P) model, one of the best rated global solar irradiation (. Rs) models based on sunshine, is often limited by the lack of model parameters. Increasing the availability of its parameters in the absence of . Rs measurement provides an effective way to overcome this problem. Although some models relating the A-P parameters to other variables have been developed, they generally lack worldwide validity test. Using data from 80 sites covering three agro-climatic zones in China, we evaluated seven models that relate the parameters to annual average of relative sunshine (. n/N) (models 1-2), altitude (model 7), altitude and . n/N (model 3), altitude, . n/N and latitude (model 4), altitude and latitude (model 5) and annual average air temperature (model 6). It was found that model 7 performed best, followed by models 6, 1, 3, 2 and 4. The better performance of models 7 and 6 and the fact that they used fewer sites and variables in their establishment demonstrated that using a large dataset in developing the A-P parameter model or having more variables included is no guarantee of wider applicability, and that the local climatic regime may override other factors in the parameter modeling. This also suggests that applicability of a . Rs model is not proportional to its complexity. The common feature of the better performing models suggests that accurate modeling of parameter . a is more important than that of . b. Therefore, priority should be given to parameter models having higher accuracy for . a. Comparison of predicted against the calibrated A-P parameters revealed many unrealistic predictions by model 5, with which it was possible to obtain meaningful . Rs estimates. To ensure that a parameter model is conceptually consistent and related to reality, it is necessary to check the modeled parameters against the calibrated ones. Models 1, 6 and 7 showed an advantage in keeping the physical meaning of their modeled parameters due to the small magnitude of . n/N and the use of the relation of (. a+. b) versus other variables as a constraint, respectively. All models tended to perform best in zone II and poorest in zone I in predicting . Rs, indicating larger errors in humid climates. Since most productive agricultural areas in China are located in zone I, developing parameter models tailored to this zone would be valuable to improve . Rs accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Xu J.W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu J.W.,Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment | Ju H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ju H.,Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

It is widely recognized that the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and climate disasters have strongly increased with global warming. The area of influence of climate disasters has also increased, which has had adverse effects on sustainable social and economic development. Drought is a recurring natural phenomenon, and is associated with a deficit of water resources over a large geographic area and long duration. Drought is attracting increased attention from scholars, with a focus on its intensity, duration and areal extent in northern China within the context of global change. Investigation of the variation of drought and regional response to climate change is very important to agricultural production, and can provide a reference fordeveloping appropriate measures to reduce droughts on the Huang-Huai-Hai(3H) Plain. At present, relevant research is more inclined to study meteorological drought itself, without consideration of drought characteristics in different phases in crop-growing seasons and the climate background of global change. In this paper, we determine drought characteristics in all four seasons and the winter wheat growing season on the 3H Plain, together with the effects of climate change. Based on data of 34 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2011, a relative moisture index was calculated to investigate the spatial pattern and temporal variability of drought characteristics on the 3H Plain. The results show varying degrees of drought in spring, winter and the winter wheat growing season. Drought frequency exceeded 90% over the past 50 years on the plain, with spring and winter the driest seasons. There were high-frequency drought areas in central and northern parts of the plain during spring, winter and the winter wheat growing season. The regional distribution of drought intensity and frequency showed an increasing tendency from south to north. A wet trend was detected on the plain in the winter wheat growing season over the last 50 years. However, the relative moisture index changed since 1978. That is to say, the index had an increasing trend from 1961 to 1980 when the plain was wetter; the index decreased from 1980 to 2011 when it was drier. Overall, although drought eased over the entire analysis period, a serious drought tendency has emerged over the last 20 years. In addition, temporal variability of the relative moisture index was significantly correlated with precipitation, solar radiation and relative humidity. This indicates that drought characteristics of the plain were more sensitive to these three climate variables. This has received increased attention in recent years with respect to addressing climate change. The results of our study indicate an arid trend, with increase of temperature in spring and summer on the 3H Plain. Therefore, relevant agencies should create an early warning system of extreme weather events and natural disasters, toward improvement of future regional agricultural scientific management and decision support systems in agricultural production. These agencies should also adapt to climate change by selecting strongly drought-resistant crop varieties and by adjusting cultivation methods and management measures, especially irrigation measures aimed at spring drought on the 3H Plain.

Hu W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hu W.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Yan C.R.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan C.R.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

This paper investigated impacts of climate change on irrigation water requirement for winter wheat with consideration to growing period in the North China Plain(NCP), benefitting to make irrigation scheduling and adaptive strategy. Based on data from 4 typical meteorology stations including Beijing Miyun and Shijiazhuang Nangong stations in the west and Tianjin Baodi and Xingtai Nangong stations in the east and phenology data of winter wheat during 1981 to 2010, the objective of this study is to investigate impacts of climate change on winter wheat irrigation water requirements in growth stages. The results showed that the dates of sowing stage and seeding stage delayed and the more variation of trend was at high latitudes, while the others showed an advanced trend. Then the spatial variation of irrigation water requirement in the NCP was decreasing from south to north in the past 30 years. And in temporal distribution study, there was a marked increase in east, but it was opposite in west area. The irrigation water requirement during the different growth stages made a different change with time. Except for a slight rise during the seeding to jointing stage in two stations and milky to maturity, the irrigation water requirements were reduced during the other growth periods. In the whole growth stages, the west sites were decreased by 6. 72 mm/ 10a and 8. 3 mm/ 10a, respectively. However, in the east sites, there was an increasing tendency of irrigation water requirements with 2. 6 mm/ 10a and 7. 08 mm/ 10a, respectively. Besides the order of annual fluctuation was: sowing to seeding stage>milky to maturity>heading to milk stage>jointing to heading stage>seeding to jointing stage > sowing to maturity. The influence of different meteorological elements on irrigation water requirement was relatively various. The relationship between irrigation water requirement and effective precipitation and related humidity was negative significant, to the contrary, the impact of wind speed, sunshine duration and mean temperature was positive. And correlation was slightly negative between irrigation water requirement and growth period length. The consequence would be more precise if growth period length was taken into consideration in the formula. Therefore, the main climatic factors influencing the irrigation water requirements were different in each growth stage. The prior impact factor was related humidity in jointing to heading stage, while the main factors were different between Beijing Miyun station and others even during the same period of heading to milky stage due to the different districts, which were mean temperature and related humidity, respectively. But for other growth stages, the influence of effective precipitation on irrigation water requirement was more important than other factors. Thus the results could become more realistic, which provided theoretical basis for the reasonable irrigation system and strategies of adapting to climate change.

Xu J.W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ju H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ju H.,Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment | Liu Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

With the purpose of probing the drought characteristic in growth stages and its possible climate factors of winter wheat in Huang-Huai-Hai plain (3H plain) under climate change,based on meteorology data of 5 selected meteorological stations from 1981 to 2010, relative moist index has been calculated to investigate the temporal variability of drought characteristic in five growth stages of winter wheat in 3H Plain in recent 30 years.The results indicated that on the temporal variation, an increasing drought trend was detected in sowing to seeding stage in southern of 3H plain while a contrary trend was found in northern of 3H plain, and the same slight tendency was detected in whole growth period. The drought of growth stages except seedling stage was reduced from north to south. The most severe drought occurred in the seeding to jointing stage and a slight increasing drought trend was detected in north while a decreasing drought trend in south in this stage. A drought trend was detected in heading to maturity, with higher magnitude in south than in north. Tianjin and Shijiazhuang stations were observed to be medium drought and serious drought primarily in whole growth period, the frequency of varying degrees of droughts in Shenxian station was equivalent while Xuzhou and Zhumadian stations were observed to be primarily slight drought from 1981 to 2009. Continuous drought of Tianjin and Shijiazhuang station was serious while sustained drought was not found in Zhumadian station in recent 30 years. With the temperature increasing, aridification might be enhanced in Tianjin and Shijiazhuang stations while a contrary trend was found in Shenxian, Xuzhou and Zhumadian stations in whole growth period of winter wheat. The trend of drought will be alleviated with the temperature decreasing in jointing to heading stage and heading to maturity statge. Drought in sowing to seeding stage will be more obvious in Tianjin and Xuzhou stations with the solar radiation increasing. There was a drought trend detected in Shijiazhuang and Zhumadian stations with the relative humidity decreasing in growth stages. Besides, with the wind speed decreasing, moisture tendency will be found in whole growth period and heading to maturity in southern of 3H Plain. The research results can provide a reference for the simulation study on the impact of drought on yield of winter wheat and developing appropriate measures to reduce droughts in the 3H plain.

Liu E.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu E.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Teclemariam S.G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Teclemariam S.G.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | And 10 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2014

The influence of different tillage practices on soil organic carbon levels is more significant under long-term tillage compared to short-term tillage. Despite the great interest in the effect of no-tillage (NT) management practice on carbon sequestration, the long-term effect of NT practice on soil organic carbon and its fractions in northern China remain unclear. We evaluated the long-term effects (after 17years) of NT and conventional tillage (CT) practices on soil organic carbon and its fractions at different depths ranging from 0 to 60cm using a cinnamon soil in Shanxi, China. A randomised block design with three replications was used to evaluate both the tillage and its effects on the yield performance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). After 17years, the soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration in the NT soil was greater than that of the CT soil, but only in the layer that was located between 0 and 10cm. There was a significant accumulation of SOC (0-60cm) in the NT soil (50.2MgCha-1) compared to that observed in the CT soil (46.3MgCha-1). The particulate organic matter C (POM-C), dissolved organic C (DOC), and microbial biomass C (MBC) levels in the 0-5cm layer under NT treatment were 155%, 232%, and 63% greater, respectively, compared to the CT treatment. The POM-C, DOC, and MBC in the 5-10cm layer under NT treatment were 67%, 123%, and 63% greater, respectively, compared to the CT treatment. Below 10cm, the labile carbon observed in the NT treatment did not differ from that of the CT treatment. Significantly positive correlations were observed between the SOC and the labile organic C fractions. Moreover, the winter wheat (T. aestivum L.) yield increased 28.9% in the NT treatment compared to the CT treatment. The data show that NT is an effective and sustainable management practice that improves carbon sequestration and increases soil fertility, resulting in higher winter wheat yields in the rainfed dryland farming areas of northern China. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Liu E.K.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu E.K.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | He W.Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He W.Q.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2014

Plastic film mulching has played an important role in Chinese agriculture due to its soil warming and moisture conservation effects. With the help of plastic film mulch technology, grain and cash crop yields have increased by 20-35% and 20-60%, respectively. The area of plastic film coverage in China reached approximately 20 million hectares, and the amount of plastic film used reached 1.25 million tons in 2011. While producing huge benefits, plastic film mulch technology has also brought on a series of pollution hazards. Large amounts of residual plastic film have detrimental effects on soil structure, water and nutrient transport and crop growth, thereby disrupting the agricultural environment and reducing crop production. To control pollution, the Chinese government urgently needs to elevate plastic film standards. Meanwhile, research and development of biodegradable mulch film and multi-functional mulch recovery machinery will help promote effective control and management of residual mulch pollution. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Hao W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hao W.,Key laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Mei X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Mei X.,Key laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

Crop area and its spatial distribution are generally considered to be essential data inputs for crop yield estimation, assessment of water productivity and adjustment of cropping structure to support science and policy applications focused on understanding the role and response of the agricultural sector to environmental change issues. The objective of this research was to evaluate the applicability of time-series MODIS 250m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data for large-area crop mapping over Northeast China. Spatial pattern of crop planting was obtained based on 16-day time-series MODIS 250m NDVI data from 2007 to 2008, Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) images, and ground truth data using Optimal Iteration Unsupervised Classification, spectral matching technique (SMT) and Google Earth. Sub-pixel area fraction estimate was applied to estimate cropland area, rice area, spring maize area and soybean area. We found that the position precision was 85.7%, their correlation coefficient compared with statistic was 0.916, 0.685, 0.746 and 0.681 respectively, and that there was significant difference between these groups by using paired samples test. Results indicated that the method can accurately reflect various crop distributions in Northeast China and be applied for large-area crops classification and crop planting extraction.

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