PubMed | Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Control China Japan Friendship Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ open | Year: 2013
To investigate the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) among Chinese individuals without diabetes and the relationship between MAU and metabolic factors, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and regional economic development level.Cross-sectional study of prevalence of MAU.152 urban street districts and 112 rural villages from northeast, north, east, south central, northwest and southwest China.46 239 participants were recruited using a multistage stratified sampling design from 2007 to 2008. A total of 41 290 participants without diabetes determined by oral glucose tolerance test were included in the present study. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio results of 35 430 individuals were available.Positive detection of MAU was determined using an ACR of 22.1-299.9 mg/g in men 30.9-299.9 mg/g in women.The prevalence of MAU in men was 22.4% and 24.5% in women. In developed, intermediate-developed and under-developed areas, the prevalence of MAU in men was 20.7%, 21.9% and 32.5%, respectively; in women the prevalence was 19.6%, 26.0% and 29.5%, respectively. The prevalence of MAU increased as the number of metabolic disorders present increased, and as the number of lower SES components increased (farmer, below university education level and low income). Prevalence of MAU in developed and intermediate developed areas had adjusted risk ratios of 0.52 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.60) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.76), respectively. Multivariate logistic analyses demonstrated MAU was strongly associated with older age, high-blood pressure, higher blood glucose low education level, low occupational level and residence in under-developed region.Several factors had independent correlations to MAU in China: older age, metabolic abnormalities, lower SES level and living in economically under-developed areas, which encourage the development of strategies to lower the risk for MAU in these susceptible populations.