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Xue R.,Zhengzhou University | Jia Z.,Zhengzhou University | Kong X.,Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Control | Pi G.,Zhengzhou University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2013

To investigate the expression of four subtypes of PGE2 E-prostanoid (EP) receptors (EP1-EP4) and the effects of EP3/EP4 on bladder dysfunction in a new neurogenic bladder model induced by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mouse model of EAE was induced using a previously established method, and bladder function in mice with different defined levels of neurological impairment was then examined, including micturition frequencies and voiding weight. Bladders were then harvested for analysis of EP receptor expression by Western blot. Activities of agonists/antagonists of EP3 and EP4 receptors as well as PGE2 were also evaluated at different stages of EAE. The results showed that EAE mice developed profound bladder dysfunction characterized by significantly increased micturition and significantly decreased urine output per micturition. EAE-induced upregulation of EP3 and EP4 receptors in the bladder was accompanied by bladder dysfunction. However, EAE had no significant effect on EP1 and EP2 receptors. Moreover, PGE2 and agonists/antagonists of EP3 and EP4 receptors significantly affected bladder dysfunction in EAE mice. Thus, we believe that EAE mice are useful for investigations of the neurogenic bladder. In addition, EP3 and EP4 receptors play a role in EAE-induced bladder dysfunction, providing us with a new target for the treatment of neurogenic bladders. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source


Kong X.,Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Control | Zhang X.,Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Control | Zhao Q.,The New School | He J.,The New School | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic loci associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of obesity-related genomic loci to type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Methods: We successfully genotyped 18 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms among 5338 type 2 diabetic patients and 4663 controls. Both individual and joint effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on type 2 diabetes and quantitative glycemic traits (assessing β-cell function and insulin resistance) were analyzed using logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms near MC4R and GNPDA2 genes were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes before adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (OR (95% CI) = 1.14 (1.06, 1.22) for the A allele of rs12970134, P = 4.75×10-4; OR (95% CI) = 1.10 (1.03, 1.17) for the G allele of rs10938397, P = 4.54×10-3). When body mass index and waist circumference were further adjusted, the association of MC4R with type 2 diabetes remained significant (P = 1.81×10-2) and that of GNPDA2 was attenuated (P = 1.26×10-1), suggesting the effect of the locus including GNPDA2 on type 2 diabetes may be mediated through obesity. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs2260000 within BAT2 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (P = 1.04×10-2). In addition, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (near or within SEC16B, BDNF, MAF and PRL genes) showed significant associations with quantitative glycemic traits in controls even after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (all P values<0.05). Conclusions: This study indicates that obesity-related genomic loci were associated with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits in the Han Chinese population. © 2014 Kong et al. Source


Kong X.,Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Control | Hong J.,Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Control | Chen Y.,Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Control | Chen L.,Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Control | And 18 more authors.
PloS one | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Though multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes have been identified, the genetic bases of isolated fasting hyperglycaemia (IFH) and isolated postprandial hyperglycaemia (IPH) were still unclear. In present study, we aimed to investigate the association of genome-wide association study-validated genetic variants and IFH or IPH in Han Chinese.METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 27 validated SNPs in 6,663 unrelated individuals comprising 341 IFH, 865 IPH, 1,203 combined fasting hyperglycaemia and postprandial hyperglycaemia, and 4,254 normal glycaemic subjects of Han ancestry. The distributions of genotype frequencies of FTO, CDKAL1 and GCKR were significant different between individuals with IFH and those with IPH (SNP(ptrend ): rs8050136(0.0024), rs9939609(0.0049), rs7756992(0.0122), rs780094(0.0037)). Risk allele of FTO specifically increased the risk of IFH (rs8050136: OR 1.403 [95% CI 1.125-1.750], p = 0.0027; rs9939609: 1.398 [1.120-1.744], p = 0.0030). G allele of CDKAL1 specifically increased the risk of IPH (1.217 [1.092-1.355], p = 0.0004). G allele of GCKR increased the risk of IFH (1.167 [0.999-1.362], p = 0.0513), but decreased the risk of IPH (0.891 [0.801-0.991], p = 0.0331). In addition, TCF7L2 and KCNQ1 increased the risk of both IFH and IPH. When combined, each additional risk allele associated with IFH increased the risk for IFH by 1.246-fold (p<0.0001), while each additional risk allele associated with IPH increased the risk for IPH by 1.190-fold (p<0.0001).CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that genotype distributions of variants from FTO, GCKR, CDKAL1 were different between IPH and IFH in Han Chinese. Variants of genes modulating insulin sensitivity (FTO, GCKR) contributed to the risk of IFH, while variants of genes related to beta cell function (CDKAL1) increase the risk of IPH. Source

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