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Wang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhu W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2017

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a ubiquitous pathogen that has caused considerable economic losses to pig farmers. However, the mechanisms of E. rhusiopathiae pathogenesis remain unclear. To identify new virulence-associated factors, the differentially abundant cell wall-associated proteins (CWPs) between high- and low-virulence strains were investigated through isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In total, 100 CWPs showed significant differences in abundance. Selected differences were verified by western blotting to support the iTRAQ data. Among the differential proteins, the proteins with higher abundance in the high-virulence strain were mostly ABC transporter proteins and adhesion proteins, and the proteins with lower abundance in the high-virulence strain were mainly stress-response proteins. The more abundant proteins in the high-virulence strain may be related to bacterial virulence. The iTRAQ results showed that the abundance of the sugar ABC transporter substrate-binding protein Sbp (No. 5) was higher by 1.73-fold. We further constructed an sbp-deletion mutant. Experiments in animal models showed that the sbp-deletion mutant caused decreased mortality. Together, our data indicated that transporter proteins and adhesion proteins may play important roles in E. rhusiopathiae virulence and confirmed that sbp contributed to the virulence of E. rhusiopathiae. Biological significance: To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic analysis comparing differentially abundant CWPs between high- and low-virulence E. rhusiopathiae strains by iTRAQ. We generated comprehensive and accurate lists of E. rhusiopathiae CWPs proteomes and identified many differences at the protein level. Among the differential proteins with higher abundance in the high-virulence strain, sbp was verified to contribute to the virulence of E. rhusiopathiae through the construction of an sbp-deletion mutant. The differential proteins with higher abundance in the high-virulence strain identified in the present study should provide a foundation for future evaluation of virulence factors. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Raza S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Deng M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shahin F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang K.,Louisiana State University | And 6 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) UL51 protein (pUL51) is a tegument protein of BoHV-1 whose function is currently unknown. Here, we aimed to illustrate the specific role of pUL51 in virion morphogenesis and its importance in BoHV-1 virulence. To do so, we constructed a BoHV-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). We used recombinant BAC and transgenic techniques to delete a major part of the UL51 open reading frame. Deletion of pUL51 resulted in severe viral growth defects, as evidenced by lower single and multi-step growth kinetics, reduced plaque size, and the accumulation of non-enveloped capsids in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Using tagged BoHV-1 recombinant viruses, it was determined that the pUL51 protein completely co-localized with the cis-Golgi marker protein GM-130. Taken altogether, pUL51 was demonstrated to play a critical role in BoHV-1 growth and it is involved in viral maturation and egress. Moreover, an in vivo analysis showed that the pUL51 mutant exhibited reduced virulence in rabbits, with no clinical signs, no nasal shedding of the virus, and no detectable serum neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we conclude that the BoHV-1 pUL51 is indispensable for efficient viral growth in vitro and is essential for virulence in vivo.


Fu L.,National Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology | Fu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao J.,Key Laboratory of Development of Veterinary Diagnostic Products | And 15 more authors.
Microbes and Infection | Year: 2016

IgA1 protease of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) has been proven to be relative with virulence and immunogenicity, however, its protective efficacy remained to be evaluated. The present study found evidence that immunization with purified recombinant IgA1 protease (600-1926aa) could induce high IgG antibody titers and could confer complete protection against a challenge with a lethal dose of SS2 in a mouse model. In addition, our findings confirmed that the IgA1 protease distributes on the surface of SS2. Therefore, the present study identified the virulence-associated protein, IgA1 protease, as a novel surface protective antigen of SS2. © 2016 Institut Pasteur.


Deng M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ji S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Fei W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Raza S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens), and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab) and antigen (Ag) detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379), 1.39% (14/1010), and 22.64% (146/645), respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333), 63.27% (248/392), 45.38% (236/520), and 14.18% (19/134), respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116), 0.77%(3/392), 0.82% (3/368), and 5.97% (8/134), respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131), 13.00% (26/200), 28.89% (52/180), and 19.40% (26/134), respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%), BVDV-1m (49.19%), or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%). Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health. © 2015 Deng et al.


Zhang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Guo Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Menghwar H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2016

This study aimed to determine the activity of one Mycoplasma bovis nuclease encoded by MBOV_RS02825 and its association with cytotoxicity. The bioinformatics analysis predicted that it encodes a Ca2+-dependent nuclease based on existence of enzymatic sites in a TNASE_3 domain derived from a Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease (SNc). We cloned and purified the recombinant MbovNase (rMbovNase), and demonstrated its nuclease activity by digesting bovine macrophage linear DNA and RNA, and closed circular plasmid DNA in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ at 22-65°C. In addition, this MbovNase was localized in membrane and rMbovNase able to degrade DNA matrix of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). When incubated with macrophages, rMbovNase bound to and invaded the cells localizing to both the cytoplasm and nuclei. These cells experienced apoptosis and the viability was significantly reduced. The apoptosis was confirmed by activated expression of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 and Bax, and inhibition of Iκβα and Bcl-2. In contrast, rMbovNaseΔ 181-342 without TNASE_3 domain exhibited deficiency in all the biological functions. Furthermore, rMbovNase was also demonstrated to be secreted. In conclusion, it is a first report that MbovNase is an active nuclease, both secretory and membrane protein with ability to degrade NETs and induce apoptosis. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Zou Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zou Z.,Key Laboratory of Development of Veterinary Diagnostic Products | Chen S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen S.,Key Laboratory of Development of Veterinary Diagnostic Products | And 3 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2016

A novel strain of H3N8 influenza virus was isolated from domestic pigeons during the avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in wet markets in Anhui, China, during 2013. The virus was characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent genetic comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NA gene of AIV mapped to the North American lineage, and the remaining seven genes belong to a Eurasian lineage. These findings indicated that this H3N8 virus is a novel nature reassortant virus. Comparison of the hemagglutinin amino acid sequences indicated 9 substitutions. One substitution caused the loss of a potential glycosylation site, and six substitutions were not previously observed in avian H3 isolates. Q226 and T228 at the receptor binding sites suggested that Anhui-08 preferentially binds to a-2,3-linked sialic acid receptors, and the cleavage site sequence showed a low pathogenic feature. Animal experiments further confirmed that A/pigeon/Anhui/08/2013 (H3N8) is low or in pigeons. The results improve our understanding of these viruses as they evolve and also provide important information to aid ongoing risk assessment analyses because these zoonotic influenza viruses continue to circulate and adapt to new hosts. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Han X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Khan F.A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in China and a live attenuated vaccine has recently been developed. This study aimed to establish an IgG avidity test to differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated animals. An indirect ELISA (iELISA) was first established in the laboratory to detect antibodies specific to M.bovis using whole cell proteins as coating antigens and serum samples from experimentally infected cattle. The specificity and sensitivity of the iELISA was confirmed using a commercial ELISA kit as a reference standard. Both tests showed substantial agreement as indicated by a κ value of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.62, 0.93), and an overall 92.0% (80/87) agreement between the two tests. Based on the laboratory iELISA, a sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) competitive iELISA was then developed for the detection of IgG avidity, expressed as relative avidity index (AI).Two-hundred and one experimentally immunised and naturally infected animals were used. These comprised 36 immunised calves, 38 negative control calves, 37 naturally infected calves, 87 calves of unknown status, and an additional three immunised calves that were used for a time trial. By testing true positive and negative antisera from either naturally infected or immunised calves, the AI cut-off value was defined as 70.4%. The diagnostic accuracy of the in-house NaSCN competitive iELISA was determined using serum samples collected from the experimental animals. The IgG avidity test demonstrated 96.0% sensitivity (95% CI 80.5%, 99.3%) and 95.8% specificity (95% CI 79.8%, 99.3%), and was successfully established as a valuable first test for differentiating vaccinated animals from those infected with M.bovis. This test may be a useful tool for clarifying the magnitude of M.bovis infection and in assessing the efficacy of vaccination in exposed animal populations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zou Z.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zou Z.,Key Laboratory of Development of Veterinary Diagnostic Products | Zou Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Z.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2014

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E) of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The envelope (E) gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Zhang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yan S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Streptococcus suis 2 is an important swine pathogen and an emergent zoonotic pathogen. Excessive inflammation caused by S. suis is responsible for the high levels of early mortality observed in septic shock-like syndrome cases. However, the mechanisms through which S. suis 2 (SS2) causes excessive inflammation remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to identify novel pro-inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the development of therapies against SS2 infection. In this study, the novel pro-inflammatory protein HP0459, which was encoded by the SSUSC84_0459 gene, was discovered. The stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with recombinant HP0459 protein induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α). Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the isogenic knockout of HP0459 in SS2 led to reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages and in vivo. The pro-inflammatory activity of HP0459 was significantly reduced by an antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and was lower in TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) macrophages than in WT macrophages. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways significantly decreased the HP0459-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and a western blot assay showed that HP0459 stimulation induced the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that HP0459 is a novel pro-inflammatory mediator of SS2 and induces TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 macrophages through the ERK1/2 pathway. © 2015 Zhang, Yang, Yan, Liu, Xu, Yu, Song, Zhang and Jin.


Qian P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qian P.,Key Laboratory of development of veterinary diagnostic products | Zhi X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an arboviral disease with high case fatality rates and neurologic or psychiatric sequelae among survivors in Asia, western Pacific countries and northern Australia. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the cause of JE and the emergence of genotype I (GI) JEV has displaced genotype III (GIII) as the dominant strains circulating in some Asian regions. The currently available JE vaccines are safe and effective in preventing this disease, but they are developed based on the GIII JEV strains. Methods: The recombinant virus PRV TK-/gE-/PrM-E+ which expressed the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins of JEV SX09S-01 strain (genotype I, GI) was constructed by homologous recombination between the genome of PRV TK-/gE-/LacZ+ digested with EcoRI and plasmid pIE-CAG-PrM-E-BGH. Expression of JEV PrM and E proteins was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Immune efficacy of PRV TK-/gE-/PrM-E+ was further evaluated in mouse model. Results: A recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV TK-/gE-/PrM-E+) was successfully constructed. Mice experiments showed that PRV TK-/gE-/PrM-E+ could induce a high level of ELISA antibodies against PRV and JEV, as well as high titer of PRV neutralizing antibodies. After challenge with 1 × 107 PFU virulent JEV SX09S-01 strain, the time of death was delayed and the survival rate was improved in PRV TK-/gE-/PrM-E+ vaccinated mice. Conclusions: PRV TK-/gE-/PrM-E+ is a potential vaccine candidate against PRV and JEV GI infection in the future. © 2015 Qian et al.

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