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Yang S.,China Agricultural University | Yang S.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Veterinary Drug Residue and Illegal Additive | Shi W.,China Agricultural University | Shi W.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Veterinary Drug Residue and Illegal Additive | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Valnemulin, a semisynthetic pleuromutilin derivative related to tiamulin, is broadly used to treat bacterial diseases of animals. Despite its widespread use, metabolism in animals has not yet been fully investigated. To better understand valnemulin biotransformation, in this study, metabolites of valnemulinin in in vitro and in vivo rats, chickens, swines, goats, and cows were identified and elucidated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS). As a result, there were totally 7 metabolites of valnemulin identified in vitro and 75, 61, and 74 metabolites detected in in vivo rats, chickens, and swines, respectively, and the majority of metabolites were reported for the first time. The main metabolic pathways of valnemulin were found to be hydroxylation in the mutilin part (the ring system) and the side chain, oxidization on the sulfur of the side chain to form S-oxides, hydrolysis of the amido bond, and acetylization in the amido of the side chain. In addition, hydroxylation in the mutilin part was proposed to be the primary metabolic route. Furthermore, the results revealed that 2β-hydroxyvalnemulin (V1) and 8α-hydroxyvalnemulin (V2) were the major metabolites for rats and swines and S-oxides (V6) in chickens. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Wang C.,China Agricultural University | Wang C.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Veterinary Drug Residue and Illegal Additive | Wang Z.,China Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Veterinary Drug Residue and Illegal Additive | And 4 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

Due to the widespread use and potential toxicity of avermectins (AVMs), multi-residue monitoring of AVMs in edible tissues, especially in milk, has become increasingly important. With the aim of developing a broad-selective immunoassay for AVMs, a broad-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) was raised. Based on this Mab, a homologous indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the rapid detection of AVMs in milk was developed. Under the optimized conditions, the IC 50 values in assay buffer were estimated to be 3.05 ng/mL for abamectin, 13.10 ng/mL for ivermectin, 38.96 ng/mL for eprinomectin, 61.00 ng/mL for doramectin, 14.38 ng/mL for emamectin benzoate. Detection capability (CCβ) of the ELISA was less than 5 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in milk samples prepared by simple dilution and solvent extraction, respectively. The optimized ELISA was used to quantify AVMs in milk samples spiked at different amounts. The mean recovery and coefficient of variation (CV) were 95.90% and 15.42%, respectively. The Mab-based ELISA achieved a great improvement in AVMs detection. Results proved this broad-selective ELISA would be useful for the multi-residue determination of AVMs in milk without purification process. © 2012 by the authors. Source


Yang S.,China Agricultural University | Yang S.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Veterinary Drug Residue and Illegal Additive | Li Y.,China Agricultural University | Li Y.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Veterinary Drug Residue and Illegal Additive | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

In the present study, metabolites of T-2 toxin in in vivo and in vitro systems of Wistar rats were identified and elucidated by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS). Expected and unexpected metabolites were detected by MetabolynxXS software, which could automatically compare MS E data from the sample and control. A total of 19 metabolites of T-2 toxin were identified in this research, 9 of them being novel, which were 15-deacetyl-T-2, 3′-OH-15-deacetyl-T-2, 3′,7-dihydroxy-T-2, isomer of 3′,7-dihydroxy-T-2, 7-OH-HT-2, isomer of 7-OH-HT-2, de-epoxy-3′,7-dihydroxy-HT-2, 9-OH-T-2, and 3′,9-dihydroxy-T-2. The results showed that the main metabolic pathways of T-2 toxin were hydrolysis, hydroxylation, and de-epoxidation. In addition, the results also revealed one novel metabolic pathway of T-2 toxin, hydroxylation at C-9 position, which was demonstrated by the metabolites 9-OH-T-2 and 3′,9-dihydroxy-T-2. In addition, hydroxylation at C-9 of T-2 toxin was also generated in in vitro of liver systems. Interestingly, several metabolites of hydroxylation at C-7 of T-2 toxin were also detected in in vivo male Wistar rats, but they were not found in in vivo female rats and in in vitro systems of Wistar rats. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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