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Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang X.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops | Wang X.,Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Oilseeds Products Wuhan | Li P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

An automated, size-exclusion solid phase extraction (SPE)-UPLC-MS/MS protocol without pre-treatment of samples was developed to screen for four mycotoxins (OTA, ZEN, AFB1, and AFM1) in liquid milk and milk powder. Firstly, a mixed macropore-silica gel cartridge was established as a size-exclusion SPE column. The proposed methodology could be a candidate in green analytical chemistry because it saves on manpower and organic solvent. Permanent post-column infusion of mycotoxin standards was used to quantify matrix effects throughout the chromatographic run. Matrix-matched calibration could effectively compensate for matrix effects, which may be caused by liquid milk or milk powder matrix. Recovery of the four mycotoxins in fortified liquid milk was in the range 89-120% and RSD 2-9%. The LOD for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.05-2 ng L-1 and 0.25-10 ng kg-1, respectively. The LOQ for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.1-5 ng L-1 and 0.5-25 ng kg-1, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins | Wang Y.,Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Oilseeds Products | And 12 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Anti-idiotypic antibodies recognize the antigenic determinants of an antibody, thus they can be used as surrogate antigens. Single-domain antibodies from camlid heavy-chain antibodies with the benefit features of small size, thermostability, and ease in expression, are leading candidates to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies. In this work, we constructed an antibody phage library from the mRNA of an alpaca immunized with an antiaflatoxin monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1C11. Three anti-idiotypic VHH antibodies were isolated and applied to immunoassay toward aflatoxin as a coating antigen. The best immunoassay developed with one of these VHH antibodies shows an IC50 of 0.16 ng/mL toward aflatoxin B1 and cross-reactivity toward aflatoxin B2, G1, and G2 of 90.4%, 54.4%, and 37.7%, respectively. The VHH-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the analysis of peanuts, corn, and rice, which are the predominant commodities regularly contaminated by aflatoxins. A good correlation (r2 = 0.89) was found between the data obtained from the conventional ELISA and the ELISA based on a VHH coating antigen for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanuts and feedstuff. The use of biotechnology in developing the surrogate, the absence of standard aflatoxin and organic solvents in the synthesis procedures, and the reproducibility of the VHH antibody makes it an ideal strategy for replacing conventional synthesized antigens. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins | Wang Y.,Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Oilseeds Products Wuhan | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

To search for an alternative to using protein conjugated aflatoxin as a coating antigen in aflatoxin detection by an ELISA method, a random-8-peptide library was constructed and used as a source of peptides that mimic aflatoxins (termed as mimotopes). Five mimotope peptides were obtained by panning-elution from the library and were successfully used in an indirect competitive ELISA for analyzing total aflatoxin concentration. The assay exhibited an IC50 value of 14 μg/kg in samples (with 1 in 7 dilution of sample extract) for aflatoxins. The linear range is 4-24 μg/kg. Further validation indicated relatively good recovery (60-120%) in peanut, rice and corn. Natural contaminated samples (peanut and feedstuff) were analyzed for aflatoxin concentration by both conventional ELISA and phage ELISA. The results showed good correlation. It can be concluded that the mimotope preparation is an effective substitute for the aflatoxin based coating antigen in ELISA and can be used in real sample analysis. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Li P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li P.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops | Li P.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins | Li P.,Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Oilseeds Products Wuhan | And 10 more authors.
Mass Spectrometry Reviews | Year: 2013

Mass spectrometric techniques are essential for advanced research in food safety and environmental monitoring. These fields are important for securing the health of humans and animals, and for ensuring environmental security. Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi, are major contaminants of agricultural products, food and feed, biological samples, and the environment as a whole. Mycotoxins can cause cancers, nephritic and hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, and immune and neurological disorders. Mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can provoke trade conflicts, resulting in massive economic losses. Risk assessment of mycotoxin contamination for humans and animals generally depends on clear identification and reliable quantitation in diversified matrices. Pioneering work on mycotoxin quantitation using mass spectrometry (MS) was performed in the early 1970s. Now, unambiguous confirmation and quantitation of mycotoxins can be readily achieved with a variety hyphenated techniques that combine chromatographic separation with MS, including liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC). With the advent of atmospheric pressure ionization, LC-MS has become a routine technique. Recently, the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in the same sample has drawn an increasing amount of attention. Thus, modern analyses must be able to detect and quantitate multiple mycotoxins in a single run. Improvements in tandem MS techniques have been made to achieve this purpose. This review describes the advanced research that has been done regarding mycotoxin determination using hyphenated chromatographic-MS techniques, but is not a full-circle survey of all the literature published on this topic. The present work provides an overview of the various hyphenated chromatographic-MS-based strategies that have been applied to mycotoxin analysis, with a focus on recent developments. The use of chromatographic-MS to measure levels of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins, is discussed in detail. Both free and masked mycotoxins are included in this review due to different methods of sample preparation. Techniques are described in terms of sample preparation, internal standards, LC/ultra performance LC (UPLC) optimization, and applications and survey. Several future hyphenated MS techniques are discussed as well, including multidimensional chromatography-MS, capillary electrophoresis-MS, and surface plasmon resonance array-MS. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 32:420-452, 2013 © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Zhang Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins | Zhang Z.,Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Oilseeds Products Wuhan | Li Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

A fluoroimmunoassay towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was presented using quantum dots as the fluorescent label. The CdTe QDs were successfully linked to the monoclonal antibody against AFB1. Based on the conjugated complexes, a novel direct competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (cFLISA) was developed for AFB1 detection. The 50% inhibition value (IC50) of the cFLISA was 0.149 ng/mL in peanuts matrix. The method performance included the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.016 ng/mL and considerable recoveries of 85-117% at three fortification levels (0.075, 0.15, and 0.3 ng/g) from spiked AFB1 blank peanuts samples, along with coefficients of variation (CVs) below 10%. The cFLISA provided an alternative of rapid and sensitive detection for AFB1 and, moreover provided great potential for multiplexed mycotoxins determination simultaneously. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li P.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops | Li P.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins | Li P.,Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Oilseeds Products Wuhan | And 9 more authors.
Electrophoresis | Year: 2012

Mycotoxin contamination in the food chain has caused serious health issues in humans and animals. Thus, a rapid on-site and lab-independent detection method for mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins (AFTs), is desirable. Microfluidic chip based immunosensor technology is one of the most promising methods for fast mycotoxin assays. In this review, we cover the major microfluidic immunosensors used for mycotoxin analysis, via flow-through (capillary electromigration) and lateral flow technology. Sample preparation from different matrices of agricultural products and foodstuffs is summarized. The choice of materials, fabrication strategies, and detection methods for microfluidic immunosensors are further discussed in detail. The sensors application in mycotoxin determination is also outlined. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Li X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li X.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops | Li X.,Key laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins | Li P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 18 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

Mycotoxins are highly toxic contaminants and have induced health threat to human and animals. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) commonly occur in food and feed. A multi-component immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was developed for rapid and simultaneous determination of these three mycotoxins in agro-food. The strategy was performed based on the competitive immunoreactions between antibody-colloidal gold nanoparticle conjugate probes and mycotoxins or mycotixin antigens. Each monoclonal antibody specially recognize its corresponding mycotoxin and antigen, and there was no cross reactivity in the assay. Three mycotixin antigens were immobilized as three test lines in the nitrocellulose membrane reaction zone, which enable the simultaneous detection in one single test. The visible ICA results were obtained in 20min. The visual detection limits of this strip test for the AFB1, OTA and ZEA were 0.25ng/mL, 0.5ng/mL and 1ng/mL, respectively. The assay was evaluated using spiked and naturally contaminated peanuts, maize and rice samples. The results were in accordance with those obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In summary, this developed ICA could provide an effective and rapid approach for onsite detection of multi-mycotoxin in agro-food samples without any expensive instrument. © 2013.

Majdinasab M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Majdinasab M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Sheikh-Zeinoddin M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Soleimanian-Zad S.,Isfahan University of Technology | And 12 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

Immunochromatographic assays (ICAs) are considered as a suitable diagnostic tool for the detection ofmycotoxins. Mycotoxins and especially, ochratoxin A are analytes with more demanding sensitivity requirements. To enhance the sensitivity of current immunochromatographic assays for ochratoxin A(OTA), a novel sensitive ICA was developed in this study. In the assay, microspheres enclosing fluorescent europium (III) [Eu(III)] nanoparticles (EuNPs) were used as a label for OTA monoclonal antibody (OTA-mAb) conjugation. Accordingly, assay was called time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic assay (TRFICA). The test strip was composed of three parts: a sample pad, nitrocellulose membrane and an absorbent pad. As for detection, a proper concentration of conjugated microspheres was pipetted into the microtube and sample extract was added to it. Then the strip was inserted into the tube and the fluid flow along the strip. The TRFICA results were obtained in 8min and read by a portable TRFICA strip reader. The established method allows quantitative determination of OTA with limit of detection as low as 1.0μgkg-1 in the samples. For validation, spiked samples including wheat, maize, soybean and rice were respectively assayed by TRFICA and a standard high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD), and good agreement of results was obtained between two methods. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Yu L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yu L.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops | Yu L.,Quality Inspection and Test Center for Oilseeds Products | Li P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

In this paper, graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and specifically selected by centrifugation to extract four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) as an effective adsorbent. Then, the amount of aflatoxins was quantitatively measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The GO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency, including the GO amount, methanol concentration in the extraction solvent, spiked amount, extraction time, and elution cycle, were also investigated and optimized in this work. Under optimal conditions, good linear relationships were achieved with the correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.99217 to 0.99995. The detection limit of this method for the four aflatoxins ranged from 0.08 to 0.65ng/g. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to determine aflatoxins in peanut samples. The results show that the recoveries of the four aflatoxins range from 85.1% to 100.8% with the relative standard deviations between 2.1% and 7.9%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Li X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li X.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops | Li X.,Key Laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins | Li P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 16 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

We screened and established seven hybridoma cell lines that secrete anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibodies with different sensitivities. Among these antibodies, 1C11 exhibited the highest sensitivity against all four major kinds of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) (IC 50 0.0012-0.018 ng mL -1 in the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system, visual limit of detection of 0.03-0.25 ng mL -1). To better understand the interactions between these antibodies and aflatoxins, as well as to guide their potential sensitivity improvement in recombinant antibodies, we used multiple sequence alignment and molecular modeling combined with molecular docking to clarify the molecular mechanism of the highest sensitivity of 1C11 against aflatoxins. Our results show that hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction formed by Ser-H49 and Phe-H103 in the antibody with the hapten played the most important roles in determining the binding affinity. Further experiments performed on antibody mutants, designed on the basis of the computational models, supported the prediction of the interaction mode between the antibody and the hapten. Although the factors that influence antibody sensitivity are highly interdependent, our experimental and modeling studies clearly demonstrate how structural differences influence the binding properties of antibodies against the target hapten with different sensitivities. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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